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Lost Treasures from Iraq--Objects

Sculpture from Eridu
Terracotta, nude male, with 'lizard-shaped' face and pointed head (hair piece?), holding stick in his left hand; shoulders decorated with applied clay pellets


Solipsism (Latin: solus, alone + ipse, self) is the philosophical idea that "My mind is the only thing that I know exists." Solipsism is an epistemological or metaphysical position that knowledge of anything outside the mind is unjustified. The external world and other minds cannot be known and might not exist. In the history of philosophy, solipsism has served as a skeptical hypothesis.

Denial of the materialist existence, in itself, is not enough to be a solipsist. Possibly the most controversial feature of the solipsistic world view is the denial of the existence of other minds. We can never directly know another's mental state. Qualia, or personal experience, are private and infallible. Another person's experience can be known only by analogy.

Philosophers try to build knowledge on more than an inference or analogy. The failure of Descartes's epistemological enterprise brought to popularity the idea that all certain knowledge may end at "I think therefore I am" (cogito ergo sum).

The theory of solipsism also merits close examination because it relates to three widely held philosophical presuppositions, which are themselves fundamental and wide-ranging in importance. These are:

That my most certain knowledge is the contents of my own mind — my thoughts, experiences, affects, etc.
That there is no conceptual or logically necessary link between the mental and the physical — between, say, the occurrence of certain conscious experiences or mental states and the 'possession' and behavioral dispositions of a 'body' of a particular kind (see the Brain in a vat);
That the experiences of a given person are necessarily private to that person.
Solipsism is not a single concept but instead refers to several world views whose common element is some form of denial of the existence of a universe independent from the mind of the agent.

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Rotated Masonic Symbolism

Hello Henrik.
I recently bought a masonic ring as a practical joke to scare a friend by leaving it in his bedroom. but noticed when i had it on that while a person looking at the ring would see the square and compass, the person wearing the ring sees someting else, he sees a person standing in front of a pyramid with his arms open in a worshiping pose. I have attached a picture of such a ring in the way you should see it too. The G would be the head in relation to the "worshiping man" if you cannot see it straight away. hope you find this interesting as i did.

From: Fintan Hennessy

Hesus Krishna

" …Up until the Council of Nicea, Roman aristocracy primarily worshipped two Greek Gods, Apollo and Zeus, but the great bulk of common people idolized either Julius Ceasar or Mithra. Caesar was deified by the Roman Senate after his death (d. 15th March, 44 BC) and subsequently venerated as the Divine Julius. The word 'saviour' was affixed to his name, its literal meaning being 'one who sows the seed', i.e. a phallic god. Caesar was hailed as 'God made manifest and universal Saviour of human life' and his successor, Augustus was called the 'ancestral God and Saviour of the whole human race' (Man and his Gods, Homer Smith, Little, Brown and Co., Boston, 1952). Emperor Nero (37-68), whose original name was L. Domitius Ahenobarbus, was immortalized on his coins as the 'Saviour of mankind' (ibid). Because the Divine Julius

Was Roman Saviour and 'Father of the Empire', he was considered 'god' among the Roman rabble for more than 300 years. He was the deity in some Western presbyter's texts, but was not recognized in Eastern or Oriental writings.

Constantine's intention at Nicaea was to 'create an entirely new god for his Empire' (Confessions of a Vatican Archivist) that would unite all religious factions under one deity, and presbyters were asked to debate and decide who their new god would be. Delegates argued among themselves, expressing personal motives for inclusion of particular writings that promoted the finer traits of their own special divinity. Throughout the meeting, howling factions were immersed in heated debates, and the names of 53 gods were tabled for discussions; 'As yet, the new God had not been selected by the council, and so they balloted, in order to determine the matter; for one year and five months the balloting lasted' (God's Book of Eskra, xlviii, 26-53 Prof. S.I. MacQuire trans, Salisbury, 1921).

At the end of that time, Constantine returned to the gathering to discover that the presbyters had not agreed on a new deity but had balloted down to a short list of five prospects, namely, Caesar, Krishna, Mithra, Horus, and Zeus. Constantine was the ruling spirit at Nicaea and he ultimately decided upon a new god for them. To involve British factions, he ruled that the name of the mighty Druid god, Hesus (crucified in Britain and later restored to life), be joined with the Eastern savior-god, Krishna (Krishna is Sanskrit for Christ), and thus a caricature, or the personification of an ideal, Hesus Krishna, would be the name of the new Roman god. A vote was taken and it was with a majority show of hands that both divinities became one God… 161 votes to 157. Following longstanding heathen custom, Constantine used the official gathering and the Roman Apotheoses Decree to legally deify two deities as one, and did so by democratic consent. A new god was proclaimed and 'officially ratified by Constantine' (Acta Concilii Niceni, Colon, 1618). That purely political act of deification effectively, and legally, placed Hesus and Krishna among the Roman gods as one individual composition. That abstraction lent earthly existence to amalgamated doctrines for the Empire's new religion, and when the letter 'J' was introduced into alphabets around the Ninth Century, the linguistic relic of the name became Jesus Christ. …"

Tony Bushby - The Papal Billions (pp 23-25) Joshua Books - ISBN 978 0 9804101 1 2

Imperial Crypt, Vienna

Since 1633 The Imperial Crypt in Vienna has been the principal place of entombment for the Habsburg dynasty, hereditary Emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, and their descendants.

The Imperial Crypt (in German: Kaisergruft but usually called the Kapuzinergruft, "Capuchins' Crypt") lies below the Capuchins' church (the Church of St. Mary of the Angels) and monastery founded in 1617 and dedicated in 1632. It is on the Neue Markt square, near the imperial Hofburg Palace.

The bodies of 142 aristocrats, plus urns containing the hearts or cremated remains of four others, are deposited here (as of 2005). They include 12 Emperors and 18 Empresses. The most recent entombment was in 2008.

From other families there are 32 spouses, plus four others, who have found their resting place here. Everyone else in the Imperial Crypt was born with the Habsburgs-only title of Archduke or Archduchess.

The visible 103 metal sarcophagi and 5 heart urns range in style from puritan plain to exuberant rococo. The Imperial Crypt is one of the top tourist attractions in Vienna.

To this day, some of the dozen resident Capuchin friars continue their customary role as the guardians and caretakers of the crypt along with their other pastoral work in Vienna.

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Maximilian I of Mexico

Sator Square

The Sator Square is a word square containing a Latin palindrome featuring the words SATOR AREPO TENET OPERA ROTAS written in a square so that they may be read top-to-bottom, bottom-to-top, left-to-right, and right-to-left. The earliest known appearance of the square was found in the ruins of Herculaneum.

The square rearranges to form a Greek cross reading PATER NOSTER horizontally and vertically, leaving two of the letters A and O, taken as Alpha and Omega. Thus, the square is linked with Christianity and may have been a safe, hidden way for early Christians to signal their presence to each other in a city. A Sator Square uncovered in Manchester, England is said to be the earliest known evidence of Christianity in Britain.

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Nelson Mandela - Order of St John (Knights of Malta) Stamp

From left: Watercolour Painting of St John Ambulance Brigade Members attending to a patient at a Duran-Duran concert; "Glenshiel", headquarters of the Order of St John in South Africa; President Nelson Mandela, wearing his Knight of Grace mantle.

In celebration of the 900th anniversary of the Order of St John, the South African Post Office issued a special miniature sheet and an official commemorative cover on 23 June 1999. The miniature sheet has a R2 face value and features President Nelson Mandela, who is a Knight of Grace of the Order, wearing the mantle of the Order. It also depicts Glenshiel, a stately mansion which has been the National Headquarters of the Order in South Africa since 1950. Situated in the suburb of Westcliff in Johannesburg, Glenshiel is lent to the Order in perpetuity by the Haggie Trust, established by Major Gordon Haggie.

The Order of St John in England was centred around the Priory of Clerkenwell in London in the 12th Century and reached its zenith of power and influence at the beginning of the 16th Century. The dissolution of the monasteries put an end to the Order in England for nearly 300 years, but it was revived in 1831 and was active in attending to the sick and wounded in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. The order was granted a Charter by Queen Victoria in 1888.

Her Royal Highness Queen Elizabeth II is its Sovereign Head. The Grand Prior, currently the Duke of Gloucester, is always a member of the Royal Family. Today there are 20 000 members of the Order worldwide. Membership is granted under the crown to those who strive to fulfil the Order's ideals.

More: Order of St. John 900th Anniversary

William Shockley

William Bradford Shockley (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was a British-born American physicist and inventor.

Along with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, Shockley co-invented the transistor, for which all three were awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics. Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s led to California's "Silicon Valley" becoming a hotbed of electronics innovation. In his later life, Shockley was a professor at Stanford, and he also became a staunch advocate of eugenics.[1]

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Galileo Positioning System

The Galileo positioning system is a planned Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA). The €3.4 billion project is an alternative and complementary to the U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLONASS. On November 30, 2007 the 27 EU transportation ministers involved reached an agreement, that it should be operational by 2013.[1]

When in operation, it will have two ground stations, one in Munich, Germany, and another in Rome, Italy.[2] Since 18 May 2007, at the recommendation of Transport Commissioner Jacques Barrot, the EU took direct control of the Galileo project from the private sector group of eight companies called European Satellite Navigation Industries, which had abandoned this Galileo project in early 2007.

Galileo is intended to provide: more precise measurements to all users than available through GPS or GLONASS, better positioning services at high latitudes, and an independent positioning system upon which European nations can rely even in times of war or political disagreement. Named for the Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei, the positioning system is referred to as "Galileo" instead of by the abbreviation "GPS" to distinguish it from the U.S. system.

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Sumerian Ziusudra ("life of long days", Hellenized Xisuthros), Akkadian Atrahasis ("extremely wise") and Utnapishtim ("he found life") are heroes of Ancient Near Eastern flood myths.

Although each version has distinctive story elements, there are numerous story elements that are common to two, or three, or four versions. The earliest version of the flood myth preserved fragmentarily is in the Sumerian language, dating to ca. 2600 BC, and is thus among the oldest literature known. Strong parallels have been drawn with other stories, such as the Biblical story of Noah.

The name Ziusudra means "found long life" or "life of long days". The tale of Ziusudra is known from a single fragmentary tablet, written in Sumerian, and published in 1914 by Arno Poebel.[1] The first part deals with the creation of man and the animals and the founding of the first cities - Eridu, Badtibira, Larak, Sippar, and Shuruppak. After a missing section in the tablet, we learn that the gods have decided to send a flood to destroy mankind. The god Enki (lord of the underworld ocean of fresh water and Sumerian equivalent of Ea) warns Ziusudra of Shuruppak to build a large boat - the passage describing the directions for the boat is also lost. When the tablet resumes it is describing the flood. A terrible storm raged for seven days, "the huge boat had been tossed about on the great waters," then Utu (the Sun) appears and Ziusudra opens a window, prostrates himself, and sacrifices an ox and a sheep. After another break the text resumes, the flood is apparently over, and Ziusudra is prostrating himself before An (sky-god) and Enlil (chief of the gods), who give him "breath eternal" and take him to dwell in Dilmun. The remainder of the poem is lost. (text of Ziusudra epic)

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MPK Co's Litroenergy

MPK Co produces glow-in-the-dark paint. Safety is one of their first intended applications of the new continuously fluorescing Litrospheres™.
GlowPaint glow-in-the-dark paint company, MPK Co., has come up with self-luminous micro particles called Litrospheres™ which they say are inexpensive, non-toxic, and will stay on for 12+ years (half-life point) continuously -- without having to be plugged into any power source. It is a betavoltaic technology, using a radioactive gas, whose "soft" emission of electrons from the beta emitting gas cannot penetrate the glass or polymer wall of the microspheres.

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James Tilly Matthews - 'Air Looms'

James Tilly Matthews was a London tea merchant with republican sympathies who became embroiled in a self-styled peace mission between France and England in 1793. He was ignored, then jailed, by the French. He returned to England to warn the Prime Minister that teams of "magnetic spies" had infiltrated England and were preparing to use 'air looms' (a type of mind control machine that used "animal magnetism" and mesmerism) to overthrow the government.

Matthews also believed he was subject to control by the air loom, which he believed was operated by the sinister 'air loom gang' consisting of seven members led by a man called "Bill, or the King". He was convinced that the gang were trying to destroy him by using "torture-at-a-distance" which included torments such as "foot-curving, lethargy-making, spark-exploding, knee-nailing, burning out, eye-screwing" and other fantastical effects.

More: | Air loom at Wikipedia

“I have been convinced that we, as an Order, have come under the power of some very evil occult Order, profoundly versed in science both occult and otherwise, though not infallible, their methods being BLACK MAGIC, that is to say, electro-magnetic power, hypnotism and powerful suggestion. We are convinced that the Order is being controlled by some Sun Order, after the nature of the Illuminati, if not by that Order itself.”

The Duke of Brunswick (Grand Master of World Freemasonry, 1700s)

Obelisks around the World

Out of 30, only 7 obelisks are still remaining in Egypt, and 13 are in Rome, Italy. Other obelisks are - in Paris, London, New York, Istanbul, Florence, Urbino (a small town in Italy), Catania (Sicilia), Wimborne (a small town in Southern England), Arles (Southen France) and Caesarea (Israel), one obelisk respectively.

The Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt made it. And the Roman Emperors made its replicas. Really a lot of obelisks were made, from a small one as less than 1 meter to a large one as more than 30 meters. But there are only 30 obelisks at present, which are large-size ones standing outdoors.

Egypt: 7
Rome: 13
Others: 10

Cleopatra's Needle
Originally, this is one of 9 obelisks at least [2 in Heliopolis, 7 in Karnak], which were erected by Tuthmosis III. In between around B.C. 23 and 12, the first Roman Emperor Augustus [reigned B.C. 27 - A.D. 14] had carried 2 obelisks from Heliopolis to Alexandria for decorating the front of the Caesarium Temple (Note 1) at Alexandria. But the one of two obelisks , which remained after the Temple went into ruin, fell in an earthquake in 1303 A.D. (Note 2), and nearly being lost at sea in 19th Century. This "fallen" obelisk is the one which was transported to London, and its companion was also transported to New York 3 years later in 1880. Therefore, there is nothing in Alexandria at present.

More: Obelisks of the World | Cleopatra's Needle

Shak Speare

shak is 4 letters
speare is 6 letters


look at psalm 46
look at the 46th word from the beginning
look at the 46th word from the end

Follow the link to see The Psalms 46: God Is Our Refuge and Strength

More: Sir Francis Bacon AKA William Shakespeare

Pallas Athena, the Spear Shaker and Francis Bacon

Face Found On Google Maps

Philipp Lenssen spotted on Digg a link to Google Maps that shows a face outline in the earth. The coordinated for the Google Maps face is at 50° 0'38.20"N 110° 6'48.32"W. Pretty convincing, eh? It just amazes me how people find these things. This location is in Canada, near Calgary and Montana - so if you are not too far, drive up there, right off highway 1 (it appears) and let us know.

Explore Google Earth: 50° 0'38.20"N 110° 6'48.32"W

Expo 2008

Expo 2008 is a planned international exposition to be held from 14th June to 14th September 2008 and coordinated by the Bureau of International Expositions organization which is responsible for sanctioning World's Fairs.

The 2008 expo will be held in Zaragoza, Spain, with the topic of "Water and sustainable development". The event is being placed in a meander of the river Ebro.

The Expo 2008 mascot is Fluvi, a little female drop of water.



The word basil comes from the Greek (basileus), meaning "king", as it is believed to have grown above the spot where St. Constantine and Helen discovered the Holy Cross. The Oxford English Dictionary quotes speculations that basil may have been used in "some royal unguent, bath, or medicine". Basil is still considered the "king of herbs" by many cookery authors. An alternative etymology has "basil" coming from the Latin word basilicus, meaning dragon and being the root for basilisk, but this likely was a linguistic reworking of the word as brought from Greece.

Basil | Basilisk | Basel

In European bestiaries and legends, a basilisk (from the Greek basiliskos, a little king, in Latin Regulus) is a legendary reptile reputed to be king of serpents and said to have the power of causing death by a single glance. According to the Naturalis Historia of Pliny the Elder, the basilisk is a small snake that is so venomous that it leaves a wide trail of deadly venom in its wake, and its gaze is likewise lethal.

Basilisk is also the name of a genus of small lizards, (family Corytophanidae). The Green Basilisk, also called plumed basilisk, is a lizard that can run across the surface of water.

Image Search: Basilisk Basel

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The Witch of Endor

In the Hebrew Bible, the Witch of Endor of the First book of Samuel, chapter 28:4–25, was a witch, a woman "who possesses a talisman", through which she called up the ghost of the recently deceased prophet Samuel, at the demand of King Saul of Israel. After Samuel's death and burial with due mourning ceremonies in Ramah, Saul had driven all necromancers and magicians from Israel. Then, in a bitter irony, Saul sought out the witch, anonymously and in disguise, only after he received no answer from God from dreams, prophets or the Urim and Thummim as to his best course of action against the assembled forces of the Philistines. The prophet's ghost offered no advice but predicted Saul's downfall as king.

Saul sinned further in consulting this woman; the practice of necromancy was forbidden by the Torah.

In Judaism, some rabbis taught that the spirits of the dead hovered around the body for a year after a person died; this made the spirit of the dead person amenable to being truly summoned during this time, and indicated that the spirit so summoned truly was Samuel, and that Samuel was indeed supernaturally summoned by the witch.

The Church Fathers and some modern Christian writers have debated the theological issues raised by this text, however. If one interprets the Bible literally, it would appear to affirm that it is or was possible for humans to summon the spirits of the blessed dead by magic. Medieval glosses naturally suggested that what the witch actually summoned was not the ghost of Samuel, but a demon taking his shape. The modern Christian author Hank Hanegraaff argues that although it is impossible for humans to summon the dead, Samuel did appear before Saul and the witch by a sovereign act of God. Hanegraaff interprets the passage to mean that the witch was surprised by these events.

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The History of Egypt Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria

Ancient Chaldæa

The Creation, the Deluge, the history of the gods—The country, its cities its inhabitants, its early dynasties.

"In the time when nothing which was called heaven existed above, and when nothing below had as yet received the name of earth,* Apsu, the Ocean, who first was their father, and Chaos-Tiâmat, who gave birth to them all, mingled their waters in one, reeds which were not united, rushes which bore no fruit."** Life germinated slowly in this inert mass, in which the elements of our world lay still in confusion: when at length it did spring up, it was but feebly, and at rare intervals, through the hatching of divine couples devoid of personality and almost without form. "In the time when the gods were not created, not one as yet, when they had neither been called by their names, nor had their destinies been assigned to them by fate, gods manifested themselves. Lakhmu and Lakhamu were the first to appear, and waxed great for ages; then Anshar and Kishar were produced after them. Days were added to days, and years were heaped upon years: Anu, Inlil, and Ea were born in their turn, for Anshar and Kishar had given them birth." As the generations emanated one from the other, their vitality increased, and the personality of each became more clearly defined; the last generation included none but beings of an original character and clearly marked individuality. Anu, the sunlit sky by day, the starlit firmament by night; Inlil-Bel, the king of the earth; Ea, the sovereign of the waters and the personification of wisdom.*** Each of them duplicated himself, Anu into Anat, Bel into Belit, Ea into Damkina, and united himself to the spouse whom he had deduced from himself. Other divinities sprang from these fruitful pairs, and the impulse once given, the world was rapidly peopled by their descendants. Sin, Shamash, and Kamman, who presided respectively over the moon, the sun, and the air, were all three of equal rank; next came the lords of the planets, Ninib, Merodach, Nergal, the warrior-goddess Ishtar, and Nebo; then a whole army of lesser deities, who ranged themselves around Anu as round a supreme master. Tiâmat, finding her domain becoming more and more restricted owing to the activity of the others, desired to raise battalion against battalion, and set herself to create unceasingly; but her offspring, made in her own image, appeared like those incongruous phantoms which men see in dreams, and which are made up of members borrowed from a score of different animals. They appeared in the form of bulls with human heads, of horses with the snouts of dogs, of dogs with quadruple bodies springing from a single fish-like tail. Some of them had the beak of an eagle or a hawk; others, four wings and two faces; others, the legs and horns of a goat; others, again, the hind quarters of a horse and the whole body of a man. Tiâmat furnished them with terrible weapons, placed them under the command of her husband Kingu, and set out to war against the gods.

More: History of Egypt Chaldea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria

The Textile Building - 66 Leonard Street

The Caduceus, a winged staff entwined by a pair of snakes. The ancient symbol of commerce, and Hermes, has become the American symbol of medicine. Six of these appear atop the columns that separate the window bays: four on the west facade and two on the north. Do these imply that the building originally had medical use, or commercial?

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After coming up with the idea of the piece in 1910 from a fantasy vision of pagan ritual encountered during the composition of The Firebird, Stravinsky began forming sketches and ideas for the piece, enlisting the help of archaeologist and folklorist Nikolai Roerich. Though he was sidetracked for a year while he worked on Petrushka (which he intended to be a light burlesque as a relief from the orchestrally-intense work already in progress), The Rite of Spring was composed between 1912 and 1913 for Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Roerich was an integral part of the creation of the work, drawing from scenes of historical rites for inspiration; Stravinsky referred to the work-in-progress as "our child". After going through revisions almost up until the very day of its first performance, it was premiered on May 29, 1913 at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris and was conducted by Pierre Monteux. Stravinsky would later write that a better translation to English would have been "The Coronation Of Spring."

The Rite of Spring

The Rite of Spring, commonly referred to by its original French title, Le Sacre du printemps is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky. While the Russian title literally means "Sacred Spring", the English title is based on the French title under which the work was premiered, although sacre is more precisely translated as "consecration". It has the subtitle "Pictures from Pagan Russia".

Nicholas Roerich's 1913 set design for Part I: Adoration of the Earth.

After coming up with the idea of the piece in 1910 from a fantasy vision of pagan ritual encountered during the composition of The Firebird, Stravinsky began forming sketches and ideas for the piece, enlisting the help of archaeologist and folklorist Nikolai Roerich. Though he was sidetracked for a year while he worked on Petrushka (which he intended to be a light burlesque as a relief from the orchestrally-intense work already in progress), The Rite of Spring was composed between 1912 and 1913 for Serge Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. Roerich was an integral part of the creation of the work, drawing from scenes of historical rites for inspiration; Stravinsky referred to the work-in-progress as "our child". After going through revisions almost up until the very day of its first performance, it was premiered on May 29, 1913 at the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées in Paris and was conducted by Pierre Monteux. Stravinsky would later write that a better translation to English would have been "The Coronation Of Spring."

The Rite of Spring is a series of episodes depicting a wild pagan spring ritual: "...the wise elders are seated in a circle and are observing the dance before death of the girl whom they are offering as a sacrifice to the god of Spring in order to gain his benevolence," says Stravinsky, of the imagery that prompted the genesis of the work. Though the music is capable of standing alone, and was a great success in the concert-hall, in conception it is inextricably tied to the action on stage. The Rite is divided into two parts with the following scenes (there are many different translations of the original titles; the ones given are Stravinsky's preferred wording)

More info: The Rite of Spring (Le Sacre du printemps)

More: Igor Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring"

Audio: Hear PT host Lisa Simeone and commentator Thomas Kelly discuss the scandalous premiere of Stravinsky’s great score and how it changed music forever. An online feature from Milestones of the Millenium (RealPlayer)

Audio: Chamber Orchestra of the Ozarks perform The Rite of Spring (Windows Media) | Intro to The Rite of Spring by conductor Dr. David Goza (Windows Media)

More info: The Rite of Spring

More on Nikolai Roerich: The Secret of Eurasia - The Key to Hidden History | The Dawn of Aquarius - A New People, A New Consciousness, A New Era

Andrew Lang & Andrew Lang's Fairy Books

Andrew Lang (March 31, 1844, Selkirk – July 20, 1912, Banchory, Kincardineshire) was a prolific Scots man of letters. He was a poet, novelist, and literary critic, and contributor to anthropology. He now is best known as the collector of folk and fairy tales.

Lang is now chiefly known for his publications on folklore, mythology, and religion. The earliest of his publications is Custom and Myth (1884). In Myth, Ritual and Religion (1887) he explained the "irrational" elements of mythology as survivals from more primitive forms. Lang's Making of Religion was heavily influenced by the 18th century idea of the "noble savage": in it, he maintained the existence of high spiritual ideas among so-called "savage" races, drawing parallels with the contemporary interest in occult phenomena in England. His Blue Fairy Book (1889) was a beautifully produced and illustrated edition of fairy tales that has become a classic. This was followed by many other collections of fairy tales, collectively known as Andrew Lang's Fairy Books. Lang examined the origins of totemism in Social Origins (1903).

More info: Andrew Lang | Andrew Lang's Fairy Books

Wars of the Roses

The Wars of the Roses (1455 - 1485) was a series of civil wars fought over the throne of England between adherents of the House of Lancaster and the House of York. Both houses were branches of the Plantagenet royal house, tracing their descent from King Edward III.

The name "Wars of the Roses" was not used at the time, but has its origins in the badges associated with the two royal houses, the Red Rose of Lancaster and the White Rose of York. The term came into common usage during the sixteenth century from a fictional scene in Shakespeare's play Henry VI Part 1 where the opposing sides pick different-coloured roses at the Temple Church. Although the roses were occasionally used as symbols during the wars themselves, most of the participants wore badges associated with their immediate feudal lords or protectors. The unofficial system of Livery and Maintenance, by which powerful nobles would offer protection to followers who would sport their colours and badges (livery) was one of the effects of the breakdown of royal authority which preceded and partly caused the wars.

Many sources suggest that the idea of the Roses was invented after the war by Henry VII. In reality, Henry's forces fought under the banner of a red dragon, while Richard's army used the symbol of a white boar.

Read more: Wars of the Roses

George Bush and the CIA behind the assassination of primeminister Olof Palme

Former CIA deep cover agent Gene "Chip" Tatum: "Our mission in ´Pegasus´ was to align foreign leaders, foreign financiers, and foreign countries with the policies of the United States using first diplomacy. If diplomacy did not work, then it was turned over to the Pegasus unit to work in one of the three arenas that we were professionals at working: Blackmail, intimidation and murder"

This is the unimagniable, hard to understand story of a 25 year CIA deep cover agent, his missions as a professional asset into service of the United States Government under Vice-President, and later President, George Bush. We publish this abbreviated transcript of Gene "Chip" Tatum´s appearance on the Rob Lorei radio show, "Radioactivity" on WMNF, Tampa, Florida, July 1996 of one special reason. 1997 GeneTatum appearanced in Peter Ford´s radioshow in KIEV radio in Los Angeles. He told Mr. Ford the same fantastic story, but also in a short passage that his "Hit Team" Pegasus, in the ultra-secret, international G7 run OSG-orgarnization, 1986 on Vice-President George Bush´s command was tasked with eliminate the Swedish Primeminister and United Nations peace mediator Olof Palme.

More: George Bush and the CIA behind the assassination of primeminister Olof Palme

An appeal to 20 American newspapers
The former police officer Underwood is innocent - now serving a life plus a 40 years sentence for kidnapping and murder of a Swede suspected for the murder of Olof Palme - the UN peace mediator in the Iran-Iraq-war and Swedish prime minister.

The Below is an excerpt from "When they kill a pope"
Licio Gelli was P2's Grandmaster, and can't even be called a neo-fascist. He was Old School: a member of the Italian Black Shirt Brigade which fought for Franco in the Spanish Civil War. During World War II, he spied on partisans in his native Italy for the Nazis, and obtained the SS rank of Oberleutenant. This same Gelli was a honoured guest of George HW Bush after the 1980 inauguration, and there is evidence that Gelli and P2 played a role in the October Surprise; even that Swedish Prime Minister Olof Palme was murdered on Gelli's orders because he'd refused to provide Swedish cover for the covert transfer of money and arms. In her October Surprise, Barbara Honegger writes that a P2 informant claimed to her that before Palme's death, Gelli sent a message to former Republican National Committee advisor (and also alleged "honourary" P2 member) Philip Guarino, assuring him that "the Swedish tree will be felled," and to "tell our good friend Bush."

Read more: When they kill a pope

New Sweden

New Sweden, or Nya Sverige, was a small Swedish settlement along the Delaware River on the Mid-Atlantic coast of North America. It was centered at Fort Christina, now in Wilmington, Delaware and included parts of the present day American states of Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The settlement was founded March 29, 1638, and was incorporated into the Dutch New Netherlands on September 15, 1655. Along with Swedes, a large number of the settlers were Finnish and Dutch.

By the middle of the 17th century, the Realm of Sweden had reached its greatest territorial extent and was one of the great powers of Europe. Sweden then included Finland along with parts of modern Russia, Poland, Germany, Estonia, and Latvia. They sought to extend their influence by creating an agricultural (tobacco) and fur trading colony to bypass French and British merchants. The New Sweden Company was chartered and included Swedish, Dutch and German stockholders.

The first Swedish expedition to North America was launched from the port of Gothenburg in late 1637. The expediton was organized and overseen by Admiral Klaus Fleming, a Finland-Swede. A Dutchman, Samuel Blommaert, assisted the fitting-out and appointed Peter Minuit to lead the expedition.

The members of the expedition, traveling aboard the ships Fogel Grip and Kalmar Nyckel, arrived in Delaware Bay, a location within the territory claimed by the Dutch, sailing past Cape May and Cape Henlopen in late March 1638, and anchored at a rocky point on the Minquas Kill that is known today as Swedes' Landing. They built a fort on the present-day location of the city of Wilmington which they named Fort Christina, after Queen Christina of Sweden. In the following years, some 600 Swedes and Finns settled in the area. The settlement actually represented an invasion of New Netherland, since the river and the land in question had previously been explored and claimed for the New Netherlands colony.


Philadelphia colloquially referred to as Philly, and known as The City of Brotherly Love (from Greek: "brotherly love" from philos "loving" and adelphos "brother")

Freemasonry in China and Taiwan

Early Days in China

Freemasonry spread rapidly throughout Europe in the 18th century and to America, India and to the East. There were numbers of Freemasons who were administrators or armed forces personnel among the expanding sea-borne empires of Britain, Sweden, Holland and France. Also, some merchants trading with Asian countries were members of the Craft. It was with a ship of the Swedish East India Company, the 'Prince Carl', that freemasonry first reached China. The masons on board had a document giving them permission to hold meetings 'wherever they came ashore' and they did so in Canton (now called Guangzhou) in late 1759. Apparently, there are no records of the working of the lodge at that time. The engraved list of lodges of 1768 under the Premier Grand Lodge of England shows No. 407, the Lodge of Amity, meeting in Canton. It is not well documented but there is some conjecture that this English lodge may have met in the Swedish Factory of the Swedish East India Company. The merchants were keen to trade for Chinese porcelain, silk and tea. Some commissioned China decorated with Masonic emblems and bowls still exists in museums. This period saw greater discontent over restrictions on trade between the Chinese and the 'barbarian' European merchants in Canton. The foreign merchants, possibly buoyed by the victories at Trafalgar and Waterloo, felt that they should press the Chinese for greater concessions. Another factor was the growth in opium trading and the increasing demands for tea and silk. These differences over trade between the Chinese and particularly Britain led to the 'opium wars', resulting in the Treaty of Nanking in 1842 and with the ceding of the barren rock of Hong Kong to the British.


The Swedish East India Company (Swedish: Svenska Ostindiska Companiet or SOIC) was founded in Gothenburg, Sweden in 1731 for the purpose of conducting trade with the far east. The venture was inspired by the success of the Dutch East India Company and the British East India Company and grew to become the largest trading company in Sweden during the 18th century, until it folded in 1813.


EU Parliament in Strasbourg

Tower of Babel

The two merged

From: Hints on the possible "Whore of Babylon"

Europe: Many Tongues One Voice

Below on the left is a painting done in 1563 of the Tower of Babel, by Pieter Brueghel the Elder, a Flemish Northern Renaissance Painter. Below on the right is a poster produced by the European Union symbolically depicting their mission. It combines the 12 stars of the EU flag with the rebuilding of the tower of Babel with the motto Europe: Many Tongues One Voice. Note also that the stars are shown as inverted pentagrams...

From: Reversing An Act Of God With A Modern Tower of Babel

Construction of the Pentagon begins - September 11, 1941

Construction commenced on 11 September 1941, and continued rapidly during the winter of 1941-42. Architects for the project had little or no lead time; sometimes construction actually outpaced planning. On 1 December 1941, when the president signed legislation transferring the military construction mission from the Quartermaster Corps to the Army Corps of Engineers, 4,000 men were laboring on the building in three shifts. One section was completed by the end of April 1942 and the first tenants moved in. The basic shell and roof were finished in one year, and the building was completed by 15 January 1943.


Killtown's - 9/11 coincidences and oddities page

Ancient Aircraft

A small model of what has been called a "glider" plane was found in a museum in Cairo. Its body was just over 6" long and its wingspan was a little over 7". Made of light sycamore wood, it would glide a short distance when thrown by hand. Other models of aircraft have been found in Egypt and South America. One of them bears a striking resemblance to a modern delta-winged jet! More will be added later. Read below about the ancient aircraft of India.


Neturei Karta

Neturei Karta (Aramaic: "Guardians of the City") is a group of Haredi (Ultra-Orthodox) Jews who reject all forms of Zionism and actively oppose the existence of the State of Israel. They are concentrated in Jerusalem, with branches in and around New York City and in Beit Shemesh near Jerusalem. Estimates of their membership range from 5,000 to less than 1,000. Other small groups associated with Neturei Karta but not actual members of the group, can be found in London, Vienna (Austria), Antwerp (Belgium), New York City, and other parts of New York state.



Zionism, Israel & Shabbetai Tzvi

Athena—the serpent’s Eve reborn after the Flood

In one way or another, Athena is involved with all of these events. She is the ultimate symbol of the great victory of Zeus-religion. She is the serpent’s Eve, reborn and exalted after the Flood. According to the Greek myth, she was born full-grown out of Zeus, an unmistakable picture of Eve being born full-grown out of Adam.26 And she was born in the presence of Hera, the primal Eve, meaning that she (Athena) is the new representation of Eve in the Greek age. As a sign of this change, Herakles presented the golden apples from the serpent’s tree, which once belonged to Hera, to his patron goddess, Athena.

Now that we understand what Greek religion was about, we are in a position to understand the religious statement the Athenians made to their world and to posterity when they erected Athena’s ivory and gold-plated idol-image in the Parthenon.


Related: The Parthenon in Nashville, Tennessee

Pallas Athena, the Spear Shaker and Francis Bacon

Secret Teachings Reborn - The Mysterious Life of Manly P. Hall

The Seven Hills of Rome

The Seven Hills of Rome east of the Tiber form the heart of Rome. The Seven Hills of early-Rome were the Cermalus, Cispius, Fagutal, Oppius, Palatium, Sucusa, and Velia. They figure prominently into Roman mythology, religion, and politics; the original city was held by tradition to have been founded by Romulus on the Palatine Hill (Collis Palatinus). The other six of the Seven Hills of later-Rome are the Aventine Hill (Collis Aventinus), the Capitoline Hill (Collis Capitolinus), the Quirinal Hill (Collis Quirinalis), the Viminal Hill (Collis Viminalis), the Esquiline Hill (Collis Esquilinus), and the Caelian Hill (Collis Caelius).

More: Seven hills of Rome

A few sporadic facts on the Phoenix

In ancient Egyptian mythology and in myths derived from it, the phoenix is a mythical sacred firebird.

Said to live for 500, 1461 or for 12594 years (depending on the source), the phoenix is a male bird with beautiful gold and red plumage. At the end of its life-cycle the phoenix builds itself a nest of cinnamon twigs that it then ignites; both nest and bird burn fiercely and are reduced to ashes, from which a new, young phoenix arises. The new phoenix embalms the ashes of the old phoenix in an egg made of myrrh and deposits it in Heliopolis ("the city of the sun" in Greek), located in Egypt. The bird was also said to regenerate when hurt or wounded by a foe, thus being almost immortal and invincible — a symbol of fire and divinity.

The Greeks adapted the word benu (and also took over its further Egyptian meaning of date palm tree), and identified it with their own word phoinix, meaning the colour purple-red or crimson (cf Phoenicia). They and the Romans subsequently pictured the bird more like a peacock or an eagle. According to the Greeks the phoenix lived in Arabia next to a well. At dawn, it bathed in the water of the well, and the Greek sun-god Apollo stopped his chariot (the sun) in order to listen to its song.

Read More: Phoenix (mythology)

Fishes, Insects, Animals, Reptiles and Birds (Part Two) from Secret Teachings of All Ages, by Manly P. Hall
Both Herodotus and Pliny noted the general resemblance in shape between the phœnix and the eagle, a point which the reader should carefully consider, for it is reasonably certain that the modern Masonic eagle was originally a phœnix. The body of the phœnix is described as having been covered with glossy purple feathers, while its long tail feathers were alternately blue and red. Its head was light in color and about its neck was a circlet of golden plumage. At the back of its head the phœnix had a peculiar tuft of feathers, a fact quite evident, although it has been overlooked by most writers and symbolists.

The phœnix was regarded as sacred to the sun, and the length of its life (500 to 1000 years) was taken as a standard for measuring the motion of the heavenly bodies and also the cycles of time used in the Mysteries to designate the periods of existence. The diet of the bird was unknown. Some writers declare that it subsisted upon the atmosphere; others that it ate at rare intervals but never in the presence of man. Modern Masons should realize the special Masonic significance of the phœnix, for the bird is described as using sprigs of acacia in the manufacture of its nest.

The phœnix (which is the mythological Persian roc) is also the name of a Southern constellation, and therefore it has both an astronomical and an astrological significance. In all probability, the phœnix was the swan of the Greeks, the eagle of the Romans, and the peacock of the Far East. To the ancient mystics the phœnix was a most appropriate symbol of the immortality of the human soul, for just as the phœnix was reborn out of its own dead self seven times seven, so again and again the spiritual nature of man rises triumphant from his dead physical body.

Read More: Fishes, Insects, Animals, Reptiles and Birds (Part Two)

Sidenote: The word Phoenix is very close to "Phoenicia" where the ancient cities of Sidon/Tyre where (Modern day Lebanon). Tyre is similar to Tyrant/Tyrany/Tire ( in FireStone Tires? Tyrian purple is from where we get the "Royal Purple" (Tyrian purple is a purple dye made in the ancient Phoenician city of Tyre from a secretion of Spiny Dye-Murex (Murex brandaris), a marine snail.)

Sidon (Sidon, Zidon)
It was one of the most important Phoenician cities, and may have been the oldest. From here, and other ports, a great Mediterranean commercial empire was founded. Homer praised the skill of its craftsmen in producing glass and purple dyes. It was also from here that a colonising party went to found the city of Tyre.

Hiram I - King of Tyre
Hiram I is sometimes identified with Hiram Abif, revered by the Freemasons for his part in the construction of Solomon's Temple. Others assert that the two Hirams are separate people, and that Hiram Abif should instead be identified with the "cunning man" sent by King Hiram to help erect the temple in 2 Chronicles 2:13-14. During the height of Masonic membership in the United States, Hiram became a common name.

Back to Fishes, Insects, Animals, Reptiles and Birds (Part Two) from (Secret Teachings of All Ages, by Manly P. Hall):
Mediæval Hermetists regarded the phœnix as a symbol of the accomplishment of alchemical transmutation, a process equivalent to human regeneration. The name phœnix was also given to one of the secret alchemical formula. The familiar pelican of the Rose Croix degree, feeding its young from its own breast, is in reality a phœnix, a fact which can be confirmed by an examination of the head of the bird. The ungainly lower part of the pelican's beak is entirely missing, the head of the phœnix being far more like that of an eagle than of a pelican. In the Mysteries it was customary to refer to initiates as phœnixes or men who had been born again, for just as physical birth gives man consciousness in the physical world, so the neophyte, after nine degrees in the womb of the Mysteries, was born into a consciousness of the Spiritual world. This is the mystery of initiation to which Christ referred when he said, "Except a man be born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God" (John iii. 3). The phœnix is a fitting symbol of this spiritual truth.

European mysticism was not dead at the time the United States of America was founded. The hand of the Mysteries controlled in the establishment of the new government, for the signature of the Mysteries may still be seen on the Great Seal of the United States of America. Careful analysis of the seal discloses a mass of occult and Masonic symbols, chief among them the so-called American eagle--a bird which Benjamin Franklin declared unworthy to be chosen as the emblem of a great, powerful, and progressive people. Here again only the student of symbolism can see through the subterfuge and realize that the American eagle upon the Great Seal is but a conventionalized phœnix, a fact plainly discernible from an examination of the original seal. In his sketch of The History of the Seal of the United States, Gaillard Hunt unwittingly brings forward much material to substantiate the belief that the original seal carried the Phœnix bird on its obverse surface and the Great Pyramid of Gizeh upon its reverse surface. In a colored sketch submitted as a design for the Great Seal by William Barton in 1782, an actual phœnix appears sitting upon a nest of flames. This itself demonstrates a tendency towards the use of this emblematic bird.

Here is an interesting sidenote on some "Cultural Mythology" that I discovered while reading up on the Phoenix myth:
Queen, the British rock band. Founded by among others Freddie Mercury the singer (do you know anything about Alchemy?).

(Freddie Mercury was born Farrokh Bulsara in Zanzibar to Indian Parsi parents, Bomi and Jer Bulsara (see [1]). His parents practiced the ancient Persian religion of Zoroastrianism.

Although he had not attended religious services in years, Mercury's funeral was conducted by a Zoroastrian priest. He was cremated at Kensal Green Cemetery and the whereabouts of his ashes are unknown, although some believe them to have been dispersed into Lake Geneva. The remaining members of Queen founded The Mercury Phoenix Trust ...) - The Mercury Phoenix Trust! Oh my!

More: The Birds in Alchemy by Adam McLean

The Mass of the Phoenix from Aleister Crowley's Book of the Law (Liber XLIV)

Knights of the Helmet - Francis Bacon and Shakespeare

This "invisible" Order, dedicated to Pallas Athene, seems to have started at Gray's Inn*. The names "William" and "Wilhelm" are derived from the word "Helmet". It seems that Francis Bacon was the acknowledge leader of a talented group, and that Ben Jonson eventually became his "My Man John". Anthony Bacon and Tobie Matthew were obviously trusted members and I am willing to believe that the Earls of Oxford, Southampton, Derby, Pembroke and Montgomery were also associated with this group.

Read more: Knights of the Helmet

Also See: Sir Francis Bacon AKA William Shakespeare

Seal of Solomon

The legend that Solomon possessed a seal ring on which the name of God was engraved and by means of which he controlled the demons is related at length in Giṭ. 68a, b. This legend is especially developed by Arabic writers, who declare that the ring, on which was engraved "the Most Great Name of God," and which was given to Solomon from heaven, was partly brass and partly iron. With the brass part of the ring Solomon signed his written commands to the good genii, and with the iron part he signed his commands to the evil genii, or devils. The Arabic writers declare also that Solomon received four jewels from four different angels, and that he set them in one ring, so that he could control the four elements. The legend that Asmodeus once obtained possession of the ring and threw it into the sea, and that Solomon was thus deprived of his power until he discovered the ring inside a fish (Jellinek, "B. H." ii. 86-87), also has an Arabic source (comp. D'Herbelot, "Bibliothèque Orientale," s.v. "Soliman ben Daoud"; Fabricius, "Codex Pseudepigraphicus," i. 1054; and see Solomon in Arabic Literature). The legend of a magic ring by means of which the possessor could exorcise demons was current in the first century, as is shown by Josephus' statement ("Ant." viii. 2, § 5) that one Eleazar exorcised demons in the presence of Vespasian by means of a ring, using incantations composed by Solomon Fabricius (l.c.) thinks that the legend of the ring of Solomon thrown into the sea and found afterward inside a fish is derived from the story of the ring of Polycrates, a story which is related by Herodotus (iii. 41 et seq.), Strabo (xiv. 638), and others, and which was the basis of Schiller's poem "Der Ring des Polykrates."

The Arabs afterward gave the name of "Solomon's seal" to the six-pointed star-like figure (see Magen, Dawid) engraved on the bottom of their drinking-cups. It is related in the "Arabian Nights" (ch. xx.) that Sindbad, in his seventh voyage, presented Harun al-Rashid cup on which the "table of Solomon" was represented; and Lane thinks that this was the figure of "Solomon's seal" (note 93 to ch. xx. of his translation of the "Arabian Nights"). In Western legends, however, it is the pentacle, or "druid's foot," that represents the seal. This figure, called by Bishop Kennet the "pentangle" of Solomon, was supposed to have the power of driving away demons. Mephistopheles says to Faust that he is prevented from entering the house by the druid's foot ("Drudenfuss"), or pentagram, which guards the threshold ("Faust," in Otto Devrient's edition, part i., scene 6). The work entitled "Claviculæ Salomonis" contains treatises on all kinds of pentacles. The tradition of Solomon's seal was the basis of Büschenthal's tragedy "Der Siegelring Salomonis," specimens of which are given in "Bikkure ha-'Ittim," v. 3 et seq. (German part). A work regarding a magic signet-ring is ascribed to Solomon (see Solomon, Apocryphal Works of). See also Asmodeus; Solomon in Rabbinical Literature.


Semiotics, or semiology, is the study of signs, both individually and grouped in sign systems. It includes the study of how meaning is made and understood. Semioticians also sometimes examine how organisms, no matter how big or small, make predictions about and adapt to their semiotic niche in the world.

The subject was originally spelled semeiotics to honour John Locke (1632–1704), who, in "An Essay Concerning Human Understanding" (1690), first coined the term "semeiotike" from the Greek word semeion, meaning "mark" or "sign".

More: Semiotics


Neuschwanstein Castle

Ludwig II, King of Bavaria since 1864, addressed the following lines to the man he so greatly admired, Richard Wagner:

"It is my intention to rebuild the old castle ruin of Hohenschwangau near the Pöllat Gorge in the authentic style of the old German knights' castles, and I must confess to you that I am looking forward very much to living there one day (in 3 years' time); there will be several cosy, habitable guest rooms with a splendid view of the noble Säuling, the mountains of Tyrol and far across the plain; you know the revered guest I would like to accommodate there; the location is one of the most beautiful to be found, holy and unapproachable, a worthy temple for the divine friend who has brought salvation and true blessing to the world. It will also remind you of 'Tannhäuser' (Singers' Hall with a view of the castle in the background), 'Lohengrin' (castle courtyard, open corridor, path to the chapel); this castle will be in every way more beautiful and habitable than Hohenschwangau further down, which is desecrated every year by the prose of my mother; they will take revenge, the desecrated gods, and come to live with Us on the lofty heights, breathing the air of heaven".

From: - History

Neuschwanstein in Bavaria is the Disney Castle

Postojna Caves, Slovenia

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Sedlec Ossuary

The Sedlec Ossuary (a.k.a. Kostnice) is a small Christian chapel decorated with human bones. It's located in Sedlec, which is a suburb in the outskirts of the Czech town Kutna Hora.

Interior of the Ossuary

See: Gallery 1 or Sedlec Ossuary for more.


Theurgy is the 'Science or Art of Divine Works', it is also the Telestic or 'Perfecting Work'. It is 'the Magic of Light', the highest aspect of Ceremonial Magic; although it is not confined by ceremonial.

The Sacred Magic of the Angels is actually Theurgic in nature, as are the ritual-methods of Alchemy.

For this sacred art, David uses the same term as Eliphas Levi did: Transcendental Magic.

Theurgy is the purification and exaltation of the lower nature, so that the individual may attain Spiritual, and ultimately Divine Consciousness.

Theurgy was the inmost essence-teachings of the ancient Mystery schools of Egypt, Eleusis, Israel and Chaldea. It was the spiritual discipline of the Neo-Platonists of Alexandria, and the alchemical Philosophers; it is the 'Work of the Chariot', or Merkabah mysticism, of the Classical Qabalists.

Theurgy was practised by Pythagoras, Plato, Iamblichus, King Solomon, and Proclus. Saints Dionysius the Areopagite and Clement of Alexandria were among the Church Fathers who extolled and practised it; it was also practised by I'bn Gabriol and the Baal-Shem-Tov.

In his book 'The Work of the Kabbalist', Z'ev ben Shimon Halevi wrote: '… Theurgy … was the art and science of adjusting situations from the higher realms so as to allow a process to proceed or to create conditions wherein a situation could develop that would aid Creation at large, or an individual to evolve, and so serve God.' [chapter 45; page 196]

David does occasional lectures and workshops on Transcendental Magic [Theurgy]; although all ceremonies he employs are Theurgic in nature. Once a year he conducts an intensive retreat for intermediate and advanced practitioners, 'The Citadel of Light'; in which are practised and taught the sacred rites; invocation; soul-ascension and Chariot work - for individual evolution, in Divine Service.

Time Balls

More: Time Ball

The Greenwich Time-ball

The Time Ball and the 1'O Clock gun

Diet of Worms

The Diet of Worms was a general assembly (a Diet) of the estates of the Holy Roman Empire that took place in Worms, a small town on the Rhine river located in what is now Germany. It was conducted from January 28 to May 25, 1521, with Emperor Charles V presiding. Although other issues were dealt with at the Diet of Worms, it is most memorable for addressing Martin Luther and the effects of the Protestant Reformation.

The previous year, Pope Leo X had issued the Papal bull Exsurge Domine, demanding that Luther retract forty-one of his 95 theses criticising the Church. Luther was summoned by the Emperor to appear before the Imperial Diet. Prince Frederick III, Elector of Saxony obtained an agreement that if Luther appeared he would be promised safe passage to and from the meeting. Such a guarantee was essential after the treatment of Jan Hus, who was tried and executed at the Council of Constance in 1415, despite a safe conduct pass.




In Norse mythology, the giants were a mythological race with superhuman strength, described as standing in opposition to the gods, although they frequently mingled with or were even married to these, both Æsir and Vanir. Their stronghold is known as Utgard, and is situated in Jötunheimr, one of the nine worlds of Norse cosmology, separated from Midgard, the world of men, by high mountains and dense forests. When living in other worlds than their own, they seem to prefer caves and dark places.

Jötunn probably derives from the same root as "eat," and accordingly had the original meaning of "glutton" or "man-eater." Following the same logic, þurs might be derivative of accutal "thirst" or "blood-thirst." Risi is probably akin to "rise," and so means "towering person." In Old English, the cognates to jötunn are eoten and eten, whence come the modern English ettin and J. R. R. Tolkien's creation Ent.

The first living being formed in the primeval chaos known as Ginnungagap was a giant of monumental size, called Ymir. When he slept a giant son and a giantess daughter grew from his armpits, his two feet copulated and gave birth to a monster with six heads. Supposedly, these three beings gave rise to the race of hrímþursar (rime giants or frost giants), who populated Niflheim, the world of mist, chill and ice. The gods instead claim their origin from a certain Búri. When the giant Ymir subsequently was slain by Odin, Vili and Vé (the grandsons of Búri), his blood (i.e. water) deluged Niflheim and killed all of the giants, apart from one known as Bergelmir and his spouse, who then repopulated their kind.


Also see: Nephilim


There are 72 names of God in the Kabbalistic tradition.

There are 72 Spirits/Demons in the Goetia.

There are 72 skulls on the necklace of Kali, Hindu Goddess of Destruction.

In Egyptian mythology: The 72 Assassins of the dark god Set clamped the lid shut on the coffin in which Osiris was trapped- then murdered.

The Great Rhombicuboctahedron is an Archimedean Solid with 72 Edges.

72 is the maximum number of spheres that can touch another sphere in a lattice packing in 6 dimensions.


Also see: The 22 ‘magic signs’

Lemegeton, Clavicula Salomonis or the Lesser Key of Solomon

Etemenanki (The tower of Babel)

Etemenanki: name of the large temple tower in Babylon, also known as the Tower of Babel. Its Sumerian name E-temen-an-ki means "House of the foundation of heaven on earth".

The story of the Tower of Babel, found in the Biblical book of Genesis, is one of the most famous and beloved legends of mankind.

The whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Šin'âr, and they dwelt there. And they said one to another, "Come, let us make bricks and burn them thoroughly." And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar. And they said, "Come, let us build us a city and a tower whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth."

And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower which the children of men built. And the Lord said, "Behold, the people are one and they have all one language, and this they begin to do; and now nothing will be withheld from them which they have imagined to do. Come, let Us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech." So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth; and they left off building the city.

Therefore is the name of it called Bâbel (that is "Confusion") because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth; and from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.

[Genesis 11.1-9;
tr. King James 21st Century]

Continue: Etemenanki (

More: Tower of Babel (Wikipedia)

Much More: Babylonia - Mesopotamia

The Morgan Bible (Jean Pierpont Morgan?) - AKA Maciejowski Bible, Morgan Bible of Louis IX, Book of Kings or Crusader Bible

The Grigori or Watchers are a group of fallen angels who mated with mortal women, giving rise to a race of giants known as the Nephilim. The Grigori, also known as "Watchers", appear in the books of Enoch and Jubilees.

The Grigori numbered a total of 200 but only their leaders are named in the Book of Enoch

According to some Jewish folklore, the Grigori or Watchers are a superior order of angels whose proper place is either second or fifth heaven. They are often described as looking like human beings, but much larger. They are said to never sleep and are supposedly forever silent. While there are good and bad Watchers, most stories revolve around the evil ones that fell from grace when they took "the daughters of man" as their own.

More: Grigori, Fallen angel, Nephilim

Werner Heisenberg
Werner Karl Heisenberg (December 5, 1901 – February 1, 1976) was a celebrated German physicist and Nobel laureate, one of the founders of quantum mechanics. He was born in Würzburg, Germany and died in Munich. Heisenberg was the head of Germany's nuclear energy program, though the nature of this project, and his work in this capacity has been heavily debated.

Quantum mechanics
As a student, he met Niels Bohr in Göttingen in 1922. A fruitful collaboration developed between the two.

He invented matrix mechanics, the first formalization of quantum mechanics in 1925. His uncertainty principle, discovered in 1927, states that the simultaneous determination of both the position and momentum of a particle each has an inherent uncertainty, the product of these being not less than a known constant. Together with Bohr, he would go on to formulate the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics.


Uncertainty principle
In quantum physics, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that one cannot assign with full precision values for certain pairs of observable variables, including the position and momentum, of a single particle at the same time. It furthermore precisely quantifies the imprecision by providing a lower bound (greater than zero) for the product of the standard deviations of the measurements. The uncertainty principle is one of the cornerstones of quantum mechanics and was discovered by Werner Heisenberg in 1927.

It is sometimes called the Heisenberg indeterminacy principle (a name prefered by Niels Bohr).



Washington Capitol Rotunda Murals
By Constantino Brumidi, 1865

The Apotheosis of Washington in the eye of the Rotunda of the U.S. Capitol was painted in the true fresco technique by Constantino Brumidi in 1865. Brumidi (1805-1880) was born and trained in Rome and had painted in the Vatican and Roman palaces before emigrating to the United States in 1852. A master of creating the illusion of three-dimensional forms and figures on flat walls, Brumidi painted frescoes and murals throughout the Capitol from 1855 until his death. The canopy fresco, his most ambitious work at the Capitol, was painted in eleven months at the end of the Civil War, soon after the new dome was completed, for $40,000. Suspended 180 feet above the Rotunda floor, it covers an area of 4,664 square feet. The figures, up to 15 feet tall, were painted to be intelligible from close up as well as from 180 feet below. Some of the groups and figures were inspired by classical and Renaissance images, especially by those of the Italian master Raphael.
Agriculture - (Ceres) | Commerce - (Mercury) | Marine - (Neptune & Venus) | Mechanics - (Vulcan) | Science - (Minerva) | War - (Freedom/Liberty) |George Washington Rising to the Heavens

From: The Apotheosis of Washington

France, Saint Denis - Benedictine Abbey Church of Saint-Denis

Visit: Images of Medieval Art and Architecture for more beautiful images.

Saint Denis, also known as Denise, Dionysius, or Dennis is a Christian saint, bishop of Paris, martyr, and a patron saint of France. He died around 250.

Gregory of Tours simply states of Denis that he was bishop of the Parisii and was martyred by being beheaded by a sword.

He was executed by beheading on the highest hill near Paris (now Montmartre), which being the highest hill in the area was also likely to have been a druidic holy place. The martyrdom of Denis and his companions gave the name of Montmartre, in French literally the mountain of the martyr. According to the Golden Legend, after his head was chopped off, St Denis picked it up and walked several miles, all the time preaching a sermon. The site where he stopped preaching and actually died was made into a small shrine that developed into the Saint Denis Basilica, which became the burial place for the Kings of France.

This walk has led to St Denis being depicted in art as headless, holding his mitred head in his hands. Handling the halo in this circumstance offers a unique challenge for the artist. Some put the halo where the head used to be; others have St Denis carrying the halo along with the head.


Astrology and the 4 Elements
The elements represent four groups of qualities and houses of three groups Zodiac signs known as triplicity. The element modifies the temperament of that Zodiac Sign as an adjective modifies a noun. The many characteristics of the element make the foundation of keywords for any astrological sign. The amount of planets, in a person's natal chart, in one ELEMENT of signs has a direct impact on how that person reacts to events, people and places in their life time.

More: The Elements - Air, Water, Fire and Earth

Astrological Symbols found in charts

Marlboro - Pyramid Capstone

Magi, also known as the Three Wise Men or Kings from the east

Petra, Jordan - The Treasury

Petra (from "petrus", rock in Greek) s an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Wadi Araba, the great valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. It is famous for having many buildings and structures carved into the rock.

Above: Al Khazneh (the Treasury)

More: Google search: Petra, Jordan

Petra (Wikipedia)

Great Architect of the Universe

Great Architect of the Universe (not Grand Architect of the Universe) is a term used by Freemasons (a fraternity which welcomes initiates of every faith) to address God. Freemasonry uses metaphors relating to building and construction, as it claims to derive its theology from the construction of Solomon's Temple as relayed in Tanakh. God is also represented by the hebrew letter YHWH in many Masonic tracing boards.

Historically, the meaning of the term goes deeper than a mere politically correct way to speak of the deity without offending people from different religions. An architect is not only a person responsible for creating a building, but a person using principles of mathematics and geometry to design the construction in a rational, harmonious manner. Moreover, once the plan or blueprint has been made, the architect will in general no longer intervene in the process of construction and subsequent change. If God is such an architect, this means that the universe follows rational, understandable principles or "laws", which, once laid down, cannot be changed.

This conception of God, in contrast to older conceptions of a God who regularly intervenes in his Creation, performing various miracles that cannot be explained, provides a direct foundation for modern science. This may explain why the roots of modern science can be traced back to early Freemasons like Francis Bacon, who is regarded as the first to formulate the scientific method, and most of the founding members of the Royal Society of London, the first scientific association in the world. One of its early presidents, Isaac Newton, laid the foundation for the modern scientific worldview in the form of a set of mathematical principles (Principia Mathematica) or laws of nature governing all movement in the universe.


Read more: Belief in the Great Architect of the Universe

Demiurge - The term Demiurge (or Yaldabaoth, Yao, Ialdabaoth and several other variants, such as Ptahil used in Mandaeanism) refers in some belief systems to a deity responsible for the creation of the physical universe and the physical aspect of humanity. The word derives from the ancient Greek démiourgos, latinized demiurgus), meaning "artisan" or "craftsman". (This word in turn comes from "official" which in turn comes from "people", meaning "creation" or "(piece of) work".)

The term occurs in a number of different religious and philosophical systems, most notably Platonism and Gnosticism. The precise nature and character of the Demiurge however varies considerably from system to system, being the benign architect of matter in some, to the personification of evil in others.

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Archon- is a Greek word that means "ruler" or the like, though it is frequently encountered as the title of some specific public office. In form the word is simply the masculine participle of the verb stem (apXo-), derived from the same root that appears in words such as monarch and hierarchy.

In the early literary period of ancient Greece the chief magistrates of various Greek city states were called Archons. The term was also used throughout Greek history in a more general sense, ranging from "club leader" to "Roman governor" to "Satan" (as the ruler of the Cosmos).

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The covenantal name of God in the Hebrew Bible is written with the four consonants: Yodh He Waw He. This name is known as the Tetragrammaton (Greek for "the four letters"). Although the Tetragrammaton was pronounced freely at the time the Torah and Prophets were written, its holiness in Judaism is such that it is no longer pronounced, except under very rare circumstances. In order to avoid offending religious Jews, one should not pronounce or misuse this name.
Stringent rules also apply to writing any of the names of God. For example, once God's name is written it is to be neither erased nor discarded. It must be stored. This is why you see circumlocutions like "G-d," which do not need to be kept. (Recent rulings indicate that use in computer files or displays does not constitute erasing.)
Most English translations of the Bible represent the Tetragrammaton with "LORD" or "GOD" in all capital letters.

in the consonantal Hebrew text:
These are the four consonants: Hebrew to the left, and Roman transliteration to the right. Capital letters correspond to the consonants of the Hebrew.

as traditionally pronounced:
When one reads the Hebrew Bible, it is traditional to pronounce the word "Adonay" instead of pronouncing the Tetragrammaton. "Adonay" means "my Lord" (except that Lord is plural, in deference to the majesty of God).
In many traditional circles in the contemporary world, the circumlocution Adonay is no longer used, except in religious uses such as prayer. In uses such as study, one will instead hear "Ado-shem," a combination of Adonay and Shem ("name"). Another circumlocution is Ha-Shem ("the Name"). There are also written circumlocutions.

as represented in the Masoretic pointed text:
In the Masoretic text, the Tetragrammaton is written with the vowels of "Adonay" to remind the reader to pronounce "Adonay" instead of the Tetragrammaton. A Christian scribe of the Middle Ages misunderstood this convention and transcribed the combination into Latin as "Jehovah," as if this were the name of God. This confused form entered English usage in several translations of the Bible.

short forms:
The Hebrew Bible and other Hebrew literature uses several shortened forms of the Tetragrammaton. These forms can be pronounced without offence. Indeed, they are parts of relatively common words.
as in Hallelujah!
as in 'eLiYaHu (Elijah)
as in
Yehoshua` (Joshua)

the presumed original pronunciation:
Based on philology and representations in ancient languages such as Greek (see below), most scholars consider this the original pronunciation of the Tetragrammaton. This form has been used in Christian translations such as the Jerusalem Bible.

old Hebrew script:
The tetragrammaton is written in several ancient Hebrew and Greek manuscripts using this old Hebrew script.

early Greek representations:
Greek manuscripts of the Jewish scriptures and Greek magical texts represent the Tetragrammaton is several ways. The examples above include an attempt to mimic the Hebrew letters with Greek and two transliterations. Old Hebrew is used in a couple of old manuscripts. Another common approach is to use the Greek word Kyrios, "Lord." Occasionally, we find "Adonai" in Greek.

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Tiamat is a primeval monster/goddess in Babylonian and Sumerian mythology, and a central figure in the Enûma Elish creation epic. John C. L. Gibson, in the Ugaritic glossary of Canaanite Myths and Legends, notes that "tehom" appears in the Ugaritic texts, c. 1400–1200 BCE, simply meaning the "sea". Such a depersonalized Tiamat (the -at ending makes her feminine) is "The Deep" (Hebrew tehom), present at the beginning of the book of Genesis.

Apsu (or Abzu) fathered upon Tiamat the heavens (Anshar) and the earth (Kishar). She brought forth the Elder gods (Lahmu and Lahamu), the grandparents of Anu and Ea. Tiamat was the "shining" goddess of salt water who roared and smote in the chaos of original creation. She and Apsu filled the cosmic abyss with the primeval waters. She is "Ummu-Hubur who formed all things".

The god Enki (later Ea), believing correctly that Apsu was planning to murder the younger gods, slew him. This angered Tiamat, whereupon she fashioned monsters to battle the gods. These were her own offspring, sea-serpents of terrifying size, storms and fish-men and scorpion-men. Tiamat had the Tablets of Destiny, and in the primordial battle she gave them to Kingu, the god she had chosen for her lover. But Anu (replaced by Marduk, the son of Ea, in the late version that has survived) overcame Kingu and then her, armed with the winds and a net and an invincible spear.

And the lord stood upon Tiamat's hinder parts,
And with his merciless club he smashed her skull.
He cut through the channels of her blood,
And he made the North wind bear it away into secret places.
Slicing Tiamat in half, he made from the two halves heaven and earth. He took from Kingu the Tablets of Destiny, with the approval of the elder gods.

Article from: Tiamat (Wikipedia)

The Babylonian Creation Myth (Enuma Elish)

The Great Ziggarut at Babylon.
This long poem was written principally in the twelfth century BCE to celebrate the city of Babylon. It recounts the creation of the universe and the events that lead up to the building of Babylon, home of the Great Ziggarut at Babylon for the gods. It evolved from Sumerian myths and the text that it is taken from is Assyrian, an empire that followed the Sumerian. The almost complete text is set out on seven tablets with about 150 lines on each tablet. It was probably composed to be sung at festivals in honour of the gods and Babylon. In its original language, it is written with no rhyme or alliteration but with some assonance that lends it a hypnotic sound. It probably sounded similar to Georgian chants in being sung by several voices.

Cast of Characters
Tiamat -- primal goddess of bitter water Apsu primal male god of sweet water.
Lahamu and Lahmu -- first creation of Tiamat, the primal silt gods Anshar -- first child of Lahamu and Lahmu, probably a god of the horizon of the sky.
Anu son of Anshar, another sky god. Mummu -- advisor to Apsu
Ea/Nudimmud-Ea/Nudimmud -- an earth and water god, son of Anu Kingu Head of the Army of Tiamat
Marduk Son of Ea-Nudimmud,

A Babylonian Cylinder seal showing a battle with Tiamat

Read more: The Babylonian Creation Myth (Enuma Elish)

Also see: El (Canaanite god)

Dragon Descent Bloodline Chart Part One
Dragon Descent Bloodline Chart Part Two

Related: House of Vere & the Merovingians, an Antediluvian Dragon Bloodline?

Flandrian interglacial
The Flandrian interglacial or stage is the name given by geologists and archaeologists in the British Isles to the first, and so far only, stage of the Holocene, covering the period from around 10,000 years ago when the last ice age ended to the present day. As such, it is in practice identical in span to the Holocene.

It follows the Devensian glaciation, the last stage of the Pleistocene and is traditionally seen as the latest warm interglacial in a series that has been occurring throughout the Quaternary system.

The Holocene Epoch is a geologic period that extends from the present back about 10,000 radiocarbon years. The beginning of the Holocene was punctuated by the Younger Dryas cold period, the final part of the Pleistocene epoch. The end of the Younger Dryas has been dated to about 9600 BC (11550 calendar years BP). However, evidence for the Younger Dryas is not clear cut anywhere other than in the Northern Hemisphere.

The Holocene starts late in the retreat of the Pleistocene glaciers. The Holocene is the fourth and last epoch of the Neogene period (second epoch of the unofficial Quaternary sub-era). The name is derived from the Greek holos (entire(ly)) and ceno (new). It has also been called the "Alluvium Epoch".

Glaciation | Holocene | Flandrian interglacial

Golden Section - Golden Mean - Golden Ratio - Phi Ratio - Fibonacci Sequence

  • Golden Mean
  • Fibonacci Numbers and the Golden Section
  • Two-dimensional Geometry and the Golden section or Fascinating Flat Facts about Phi
  • Some Solid (Three-dimensional) Geometrical Facts about the Golden Section
  • The Fibonacci Sequence
  • Sacred Geometry

  • Kol Nidre

    Kol Nidre is a Jewish prayer recited in the synagogue at the beginning of the evening service on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement. It is written in Aramaic, not Hebrew. Its name is taken from the opening words, meaning "All vows".

    "Kol Nidre" has had an eventful history, both in itself and in its influence on the legal status of the Jews. Introduced into the liturgy despite the opposition of some rabbinic authorities, attacked in the course of time by some rabbis, and in the nineteenth century expunged from the prayer-book by many communities of western Europe, this prayer has often been employed out of context by anti-Semites to support their claims that Jews cannot be trusted.

    Before sunset on the eve of Yom Kippur ("Day of Atonement"), the congregation gathers in the synagogue. The Ark is opened and two people take from it two Torah scrolls. Then they take their places, one on each side of the cantor, and the three recite:
    "In the tribunal of Heaven and the tribunal of earth, by the permission of God — praised be He — and by the permission of this holy congregation, we hold it lawful to pray with transgressors."
    The cantor then chants the prayer beginning with the words Kol Nidre with its touching melody, and, gradually increasing in volume from pianissimo (quiet) to fortissimo (loud), repeats three times the following words:
    "All personal vows we are likely to make, all personal oaths and pledges we are likely to take between this Yom Kippur and the next Yom Kippur, we publicly renounce. Let them all be relinquished and abandoned, null and void, neither firm nor established. Let our personal vows, pledges and oaths be considered neither vows nor pledges nor oaths."


    Emma Goldman

    Nicolas Kalmakoff - The Forgotten Visionary

    The Darkness

    In 1955, a Russian émigré died alone, unknown and in poverty at the hôpital de Lagny to the north of Paris. After leading a hermit's existence in his small room at the hotel de la Rochefoucault in Paris, this former Russian aristocrat had created a fascinating body of work which, deemed eccentric and worthless, was locked away in storage and forgotten.

    Throughout his solitary life, the artist had painted works that reflected his various obsessions with martyrdom, asceticism, decadence, spirituality and sexuality. Executed in a style marked by the Russian art nouveau, his imagery nevertheless transcended this movement, bearing undeniable traces of demented vision, indeed, genius.

    Only in 1962 did some of his works come to light when Bertrand Collin du Bocage and Georges Martin du Nord discovered forty canvases in the Marché aux Puces, a large flea market to the north of Paris. All the works in this unusual collection were signed with a stylized 'K' monogram.

    The Hungarian merchant who sold the lot to them included with it a poster of an exhibition held in Galerie Le Roy, Brussels, in 1924. Here, for the first time, the full name of the mysterious 'K' was revealed - Nicolas Kalmakoff.

    Read and View Art:

    The Merovingian Dynasty Satanic Bloodline of the Antichrist & False Prophet

    Caroline Seawright's Egyptology Column

    The Vacant Seat Number 666 in the European Parliament

    The Lost Tribes of the House of Israel

    Goya - Witches' Sabbath (1789) More
    Sabbath (Hebrew, Shabbat, derived from the verb shavat, “to rest, cease”), a holy day of rest observed by the Jews and some Christian denominations on Saturday, the seventh day of the week, and by most Christians on Sunday. The origin of the sabbath is uncertain, but it is apparently connected with the Babylonian shapattu, the 15th day of the month, on which the full moon occurs, and the Babylonian cycle of “evil days” every seventh day.

    Saturday, seventh day of the week, named in honor of the Roman god Saturn. In Latin, Saturday was called dies Saturni; it was called Sater-daeg by the Anglo-Saxons. It is the holy day of the Israelites of the Old Testament and in Hebrew is called Sabbath, the only day of the week with a name, the rest being numbered. The word sabbath derives from the Hebrew word meaning “to rest or cease”; the Jews were enjoined from working on the seventh day. It begins at sunset Friday and lasts until sunset Saturday. In the early days of Christianity, the holy day gradually shifted to Sunday, which, as the first day, was deemed more appropriate since it was the day of the resurrection of Jesus Christ and the day on which creation began. In Sweden, however, Saturday is Lördag, or Lord's Day; and in Denmark and Norway it is Lørdag. In Spanish it is el sábado and in Italian sabato, both derived from sabbath. Several Christian sects, notably the Seventh-Day Adventist church, have reverted to Old Testament practice and observe Saturday as their day of worship.

    Saturn (mythology), in Roman mythology, ancient god of agriculture. In later legends he was identified with the Greek god Cronus, who, after having been dethroned by his son Zeus (in Roman mythology, Jupiter), fled to Italy, where he ruled during the Golden Age, a time of perfect peace and happiness. Beginning on December 17 of each year, during the festival known as the Saturnalia, the Golden Age was restored for seven days. All business stopped and executions and military operations were postponed. It was a period of goodwill, devoted to banquets and the exchange of visits and gifts. A special feature of the festival was the freedom given to slaves, who during this time had first place at the family table and were served by their masters.

    Saturn was the husband of Ops, goddess of plenty. Besides Jupiter, who was ruler of the gods, Saturn's children also included Juno, goddess of marriage; Neptune, god of the sea; Pluto, god of the dead; and Ceres, goddess of the grain. In art Saturn is usually shown bearded, carrying a sickle or an ear of corn.


    The Sunday vs Saturday Sabbath Argument
    The Change to Sunday Worship actually occurred in the 4th Century. On March 7, 321 A.D. while then actually not yet converted to Christianity, the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great proclaimed in his famous Sunday law: "On the venerable Day of the Sun let the magistrates and people residing in cities rest, and let all workshops be closed. The Bishop of Rome at that time was Sylvester I. It is likely that he was then under the "thumb" of the Roman Emperor, and complied.

    By blessing and sanctifying the seventh-day Sabbath (Saturday), God showed that His presence is IN this day in a very special way. For of all the days of the week, this one ALONE points to Him in a unique way as the true God, the One who created and now governs the entire universe.

    Paul and the Apostles kept the Saturday Sabbath. We know that Paul kept it up to 30 yrs after being converted. But this may have just been Paul's custom. Much like Jews for Jesus continue with the Saturday Sabbath.


    The Origin of the Milky Way

    View in Detail: Tintoretto's "The Origin of the Milky Way" (about 1575)

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