The Long Data of European Jewish Expulsions
2013 09 21

By Samuel Arbesman | wired.com


As you might have realized, I love datasets of long timescale, ones that talk about Long Data. Well, here’s a doozy of a dataset: 700 years of European Jewish persecutions and expulsions. Forming the basis for a thought-provoking paper on SSRN titled “From the Persecuting to the Protective State? Jewish Expulsions and Weather Shocks from 1100 to 1800“—it explores whether there is a relationship between weather and growing season and the likelihood that the Jewish community would be expelled—is this incredibly detailed dataset culled from the Encyclopaedia Judaica. From the paper (further details about how the dataset was compiled are available in the appendix):
We collect city–level data on the presence of a Jewish community in Europe between 1100 to 1800 from the twenty-six volume Encyclopedia Judaica (2007). The Encyclopedia typically mentions when Jews entered a city, when they were persecuted, when they were expelled, and when they were allowed re-entry. We are interested in all of these pieces of information since in order to model the probability of an expulsion from a city, we need to know when that city had a Jewish population to expel.

The Encyclopedia provides a comprehensive measure of Jewish presence, persecution and expulsion for the whole of Europe. It does not contain information on all of the smaller Jewish communities that may have existed and it likely does not contain information on minor persecutions. Voigtländer and Voth (2012) uses more detailed data for Jewish persecutions in medieval Germany. But the two sources they employ only provide data for Germany. The Encyclopedia Judaica provides less detail but compensates for this with wider geographic and temporal coverage.
Here is a visualization of this unbelievable dataset:



The paper also includes a detailed discussion of Jewish persecution and expulsion in Medieval Europe:
It is important not to overstate the frequency with which Jewish communities were threatened with violence and pogroms—many Jewish communities lived in peace with their Christian neighbors for long periods of time. But as an economically dominant minority in poor and largely agrarian economies, and as outsiders in a society that increasingly aggressively defined itself in opposition to infidels and unbelievers, Jews often aroused jealousy and suspicion from others.
While the discussion is much more involved, here is a time series of these expulsions (along with temperature data), which highlights certain historical events and gives a sense of the expulsion frequency:



Unfortunately, the dataset doesn’t seem to be currently publicly available but I would love to see what further insights can be gleaned from this long data.

This article is written by By Samuel Arbesman for wired.com

Ed Comment: So yet another problem of global warming (and cooling) is pinpointed. Yes, it’s simply the weather’s fault! ; ) That is what drove those grumpy irrational "agrarian" medieval country bumpkin Europeans stir crazy! Glad that this mystery is sorted out then.



Related Articles
109 Locations whence Jews have been Expelled since AD250
First ever European Jewish Parliament inaugurated in Brussels
Jewish Extremists Elect "Jews-Only" Parliament
Once is happenstance. Twice is coincidence. Three times is enemy action


Latest News from our Front Page

Left and their big fat multi-cultural lie
2014 08 30
Picture the scene; a taxi is pulled over by an officer from South Yorkshire Police who finds a half-naked 12-year-old in the back of the cab so drunk or drugged that she can hardly stand. When interviewed, the taxi driver is found to have pornographic pictures of the girl on his phone. The officer hands back the phone and – no ...
Rotherham - Child sacrifice to diversity god
2014 08 30
It is sad to see how the once great nation of England has fallen. Britain now rivals North Korea for totalitarian control. If you are White, the wrong word can send you to jail. If you are non-White you are free to rape and kill the native British with impunity. If Henry the VIII came back from the grave, he could ...
Hungary’s Orban Bashes Liberal Immigration Policy
2014 08 29
Hungary’s Prime Minister Viktor Orban on Monday lashed out against immigration, setting one of the main policy objectives of his next term in power after winning parliamentary elections in April. “The goal is to cease immigration whatsoever,” said Hungary’s prime minister. “I think the current liberal immigration policy, which is considered obvious and morally based, is hypocrite,” Mr. Orban said. At a ...
China’s “Duplitecture” Cities Mimic the World’s Greatest Architectural Hits
2014 08 29
The best knockoffs in the world are in China. There are plenty of fake designer handbags and Rolexes, but China’s knockoffs go way beyond fashion. There are knockoff Apple stores that look so much like the real thing that some employees believe they are working in real Apple stores. And then there are entire knockoff cities. There are Venices with ...
Kiev loses control of Novoazovsk, rebel troops advance in southeast Ukraine
2014 08 29
Kiev’s troops had to leave the eastern Ukrainian city of Novoazovsk to save their lives, said the country’s Security and Defense Council. The authorities admitted that self-defense forces are advancing and leading a counteroffensive in the southeast. Along with Novoazovsk, Kiev troops have lost control over the villages of Amvrosiivka and Starobeshevo in the Donetsk Region of Eastern Ukraine. According to Ukraine’s ...
More News »