The Long Data of European Jewish Expulsions
By Samuel Arbesman | wired.com
As you might have realized, I love datasets of long timescale, ones that talk about Long Data. Well, here’s a doozy of a dataset: 700 years of European Jewish persecutions and expulsions. Forming the basis for a thought-provoking paper on SSRN titled “From the Persecuting to the Protective State? Jewish Expulsions and Weather Shocks from 1100 to 1800“—it explores whether there is a relationship between weather and growing season and the likelihood that the Jewish community would be expelled—is this incredibly detailed dataset culled from the Encyclopaedia Judaica. From the paper (further details about how the dataset was compiled are available in the appendix):
We collect city–level data on the presence of a Jewish community in Europe between 1100 to 1800 from the twenty-six volume Encyclopedia Judaica (2007). The Encyclopedia typically mentions when Jews entered a city, when they were persecuted, when they were expelled, and when they were allowed re-entry. We are interested in all of these pieces of information since in order to model the probability of an expulsion from a city, we need to know when that city had a Jewish population to expel.Here is a visualization of this unbelievable dataset:
The Encyclopedia provides a comprehensive measure of Jewish presence, persecution and expulsion for the whole of Europe. It does not contain information on all of the smaller Jewish communities that may have existed and it likely does not contain information on minor persecutions. Voigtländer and Voth (2012) uses more detailed data for Jewish persecutions in medieval Germany. But the two sources they employ only provide data for Germany. The Encyclopedia Judaica provides less detail but compensates for this with wider geographic and temporal coverage.
The paper also includes a detailed discussion of Jewish persecution and expulsion in Medieval Europe:
It is important not to overstate the frequency with which Jewish communities were threatened with violence and pogroms—many Jewish communities lived in peace with their Christian neighbors for long periods of time. But as an economically dominant minority in poor and largely agrarian economies, and as outsiders in a society that increasingly aggressively defined itself in opposition to infidels and unbelievers, Jews often aroused jealousy and suspicion from others.While the discussion is much more involved, here is a time series of these expulsions (along with temperature data), which highlights certain historical events and gives a sense of the expulsion frequency:
Unfortunately, the dataset doesn’t seem to be currently publicly available but I would love to see what further insights can be gleaned from this long data.
This article is written by By Samuel Arbesman for wired.com
Ed Comment: So yet another problem of global warming (and cooling) is pinpointed. Yes, it’s simply the weather’s fault! ; ) That is what drove those grumpy irrational "agrarian" medieval country bumpkin Europeans stir crazy! Glad that this mystery is sorted out then.
109 Locations whence Jews have been Expelled since AD250
First ever European Jewish Parliament inaugurated in Brussels
Jewish Extremists Elect "Jews-Only" Parliament
Once is happenstance. Twice is coincidence. Three times is enemy action
Latest News from our Front Page
60 Years of Research Links Gluten Grains to Schizophrenia
Does the consumption of gluten-containing grains contribute to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia?
Believe it or not, this question has been asked for well over 60 years by researchers who stumbled upon evidence that the removal of gluten from the diet results in improved symptoms, or conversely, that gluten grain consumption leads to higher prevalence of both neurological and psychiatric problems.
A Sour Deception: Citric Acid Comes From GMO Black Mold, Not Fruit
Just what is your food made of, anyway? Try industrial synthesis, genetically modified mold secretions, hydrochloric acid, mercury-contaminated caustic soda, ferrocyanideâ€¦ and, of course, lots of GMO corn.
If common ingredients like â€ścitric acidâ€ť and â€śascorbic acid (Vitamin C)â€ť sound normal and familiar enough that you practically conjure up an image of the flourishing orchard they were grown in â€“ then ...
Thousands of migrants dumped on Britain as French wriggle out of border promise
Thousands of migrants could be dumped on Britainâ€™s doorstep if France tears up a historic border agreement, it was claimed last night.
Officials have vowed to do â€śeverything in their powerâ€ť to wriggle out of a treaty moving the UK border to Calais.
The besieged townâ€™s mayor Natacha Bouchart is prepared to spark a major diplomatic row by opening the frontier ...
Richard III laid to rest at Leicester Cathedral
King Richard III was today laid to rest at Leicester Cathedral - more than 500 years after his death in battle.
The monarch, who reigned from 1483 to 1485, was the last of the Plantagenet dynasty.
Actor Benedict Cumberbatch read a poem by Carol Ann Duffy during the service. Also in attendance was Robert Lindsay, who played Richard III in a version ...
Sweden - A new paradise for Romani beggars
Thanks to the European Union and freedom of movement that follows with membership Sweden has been flooded with gypsies from Eastern Europe.
Most member states have cracked down hard on the phenomenon of organized begging with legislation and forceful evictions so the Romani (colloquially known as Gypsies) who are engaged in this venture have moved their business to the country where ...
|More News » |