Notre Dame professor tackles myth of Christian martyrdom
By Liz Goodwin | The Lookout
Candida Moss, a professor of early Christianity at the University of Notre Dame and a practicing Catholic, wants to shatter what she calls the myth of martyrdom in the Christian faith.
Sunday school tales of early Christians being rounded up at their secret catacomb meetings and thrown to the lions by evil Romans are mere fairy tales, Moss writes in a new book. In fact, in the first 250 years of Christianity, Romans mostly regarded the religions practitioners as meddlesome members of a superstitious cult.
The government actively persecuted Christians for only about 10 years, Moss suggests, and even then intermittently. And, she says, many of the best known early stories of brave Christian martyrs were entirely fabricated.
The controversial thesis, laid out in "The Myth of Persecution: How Early Christians Invented a Story of Martyrdom," has earned her a lot of hate mail and a few sidelong looks from fellow faculty members. But Moss maintains that the Roman Catholic Church and historians have known for centuries that most early Christian martyr stories were exaggerated or invented.
A small group of priest scholars in the 17th century began sifting through the myths, discrediting not only embellished stories about saints (including that St. George slew a dragon) but also tossing out popular stories about early Christian martyrs.
Historians, including Moss, say only a handful of martyrdom stories from the first 300 years of Christianitywhich includes the reign of the cruel, Christian-loathing Neroare verifiable. (Saint Perpetua of Carthage, pictured in the stained glass window above, is one of the six famous early Christian martyrs Moss believes was actually killed for her faith.)
Moss contends that when Christians were executed, it was often not because of their religious beliefs but because they wouldnt follow Roman rules. Many laws that led to early Christians execution were not specifically targeted at themsuch as a law requiring all Roman citizens to engage in a public sacrifice to the godsbut their refusal to observe those laws and other mores of Roman society led to their deaths.
Moss calls early Christians rude, subversive and disrespectful, noting that they refused to swear oaths, join the military or participate in any other part of Roman society.
Moss can at times seem clinical when attempting to distinguish between true and systematic persecution of Christians for their faith and intermittent violence against them for refusing to conform.
"If persecution is to be defined as hostility toward a group because of its religious beliefs, then surely it is important that the Romans intended to target Christians, she writes. Otherwise this is prosecution, not persecution."
With true government persecution, victims have no room to negotiate when trying to convince the government to stop targeting them, Moss said. But when the governments laws inadvertently lead to the persecution of Christians, there remains room for dialogue and debate over changing those laws.
The reason I make the distinction is in the case of people seeking you out, torturing you just because youre Christianwhich did happen for a few yearsin that situation, you cant negotiate, she said. You have no opportunity to resist or to fight back. In a situation where theres sort of disagreements
theres room for debate.
Moss pointed to the new U.S. health care laws requirement that insurance companies cover contraception as an example of a law that inadvertently targeted Christians but was interpreted as a direct attack on the faith.
Much like the Emperor Diocletians edict that all Romans make a sacrifice to the gods (which Moss describes as being like a mandatory pledge of allegiance), the contraceptive mandate was not designed to target or single out Christians, she says. (Christians and others who refused to make the sacrifice in the fourth century were slaughtered. Christian organizations that do not want to provide contraception under the 21st century law will be fined.)
Notre Dame is one dozens of religiously affiliated universities that sued over the birth control mandate, saying providing its employees and students with health insurance that covered contraceptives would violate the universitys religious freedom.
Some in the religious community framed the contraceptive mandate as a deliberate persecution of Christians, rather than as bad policy, Moss says, in a way thats made it difficult for them to negotiate.
Labeling it persecution is saying, Were under attack, were persecuted. The other side has no reason to do this and we have to fight. We shouldnt have to negotiate or compromise, she said.
Moss says she is personally against her universitys decision to sue over the mandate.
I think that the University of Notre Dame does not control how I spend my salary, therefore controlling what kinds of health care people have access to is maybe something we should not be trying to do, she said. I think Catholic institutions should trust their employees not to use contraception.
Moss said the early Christian persecution complex influences the present-day political debate in America. The cable news hobbyhorse that theres a deliberate War on Christmas in America is one example of a modern day martyrdom myth, she said.
Read the whole article at: news.yahoo.com
Also tune into Red Ice Radio:
Joseph Atwill, Fritz Heede & Nijole Sparkis - Hour 1 - The Roman Conspiracy to Invent Jesus
Santos Bonacci - Hour 1 - The Holy Science
Joseph Atwill - Hour 1 - Caesars Messiah, The Roman Conspiracy to Invent Jesus
Acharya S - Hour 1 - The Christ Conspiracy
Kenneth Humphreys - Jesus Never Existed, Judaism & Christianity
Leo Rutherford - Religion, The Greatest Fraud Ever Sold
Dennis Price - The Missing Years of Jesus
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