Free will and fate are both illusions
2013-03-28 0:00

By Tim Lott | AEON

Free will and fate are both illusions. The trick is learning to sail with the prevailing winds of life.

There is a line in J G Ballardís book The Atrocity Exhibition (1970) that strikes at the heart of the issue of free will versus fate. Ballard writes: ĎDeep assignments run through all our lives; there are no coincidences.í It is an arresting line ó and no doubt many of us at one time or another have felt just this way about our lives, that they have a fated quality to them ≠ó≠ but just what these Ďdeep assignmentsí consist of is unclear. The issue of free will versus fate might, for many people, feel a little rarefied, and irrelevant. Yet it seems to me it is absolutely crucial to how we approach the countless dilemmas that confront every one of us each day.

Perhaps itís peculiar, but this question has vexed me for as long as I can remember. At one point in my life, this challenge pretty much sent me crazy. In the late 1980s, when I was studying history at university, I found myself grappling furiously with the question of why things happened ó this question being, really, at the heart of all historical analysis.

Why did the Russian Revolution happen in 1917 rather than the Ďfirst time roundí in 1905? What caused the Second World War? Was it Ďlarger historical forcesí? Or just individuals making individual decisions? And, at the same time, in my own life ó after I had split up with my then long-term girlfriend ó I was left asking, what had I done to make that happen? What did I have to do to get her back? Was it in my control?

After three years, I was no wiser than when I started. Did we choose freely? Or were we just victims of larger historical, social and biological forces? It was impossible to tell. What I did realise was that philosophers had been struggling with such questions for thousands of years, but were no closer to understanding the answer than they were when they started out. Today, the consensus among most modern physicists, chemists and biologists is that free will is impossible ó it is simply an illusion generated by a consciousness that is itself illusory. This explanation didnít satisfy me. After all, if consciousness is an illusion, who is generating the illusion, and who is perceiving it as an illusion? For me, mechanistic determinism≠ ó that there is a sort of fated cause and effect at play in the universe, with no room for choice ó raised more problems than it solved.

Consider your breathing: are Ďyouí breathing, or is breathing happening to you?

It also just felt wrong. I felt so sure that I could decide whether or not to drink the glass of water in front of me that I would find it impossible to be convinced otherwise. That direct experience of reality is valid, particularly since it also takes into account the fact that I might drink the water without consciously choosing to, without thinking about it first.

At the same time, it seemed impossible to believe wholeheartedly in free will. At one level, I intuited that there were paths that you just Ďhadí to take, even if you didnít want to. When I decided to leave my publishing company to go to university later on in life, it felt like something I had to do. When I ended my marriage, I felt I had no choice ó but of course, in theory at least, I did.


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