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Oldest Fake Toes Made Walking Easier in Egypt 2012-10-03 0:00
Researchers have suspected two Egyptian artificial toes are the world’s oldest known prosthetic body parts. A new study suggests that is the case: Volunteers without a big toe showed the prosthetics would have made walking around in ancient Egyptian sandals much easier, suggesting they were not just used in burial or in some other non-practical way.
One of the artifacts in question is the Greville Chester toe, now in the British Museum. It dates back before 600 B.C. and is made of cartonnage, an ancient type of papier maché made with a mixture of linen, animal glue and tinted plaster. The other is the wood and leather Cairo toe at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, which was found on a female mummy near Luxor and is thought to date back to between 950 and 710 B.C.
If the parts were indeed used to help ancient Egyptians missing a big toe walk normally, they would be the earliest known practical prostheses — older than the bronze and wooden Roman Capua leg, which dates back to 300 B.C.
"Several experts have examined these objects and had suggested that they were the earliest prosthetic devices in existence," University of Manchester researcher Jacky Finch, who led the study, said in a statement. "There are many instances of the ancient Egyptians creating false body parts for burial but the wear plus their design both suggest they were used by people to help them to walk."
To help prove this claim, Finch recruited two volunteers who were both missing their right big toe and outfitted them with replicas of the ancient fake toes and replica Egyptian sandals. The volunteers then walked 33 feet (10 meters) barefoot, with shoes on and then with the replica toes both with and without sandals. Finch recorded their movements and measured the pressure of their footsteps with a special mat.
A volunteer in the study wears a replica of an ancient Egyptian prosthetic toe with imitation Egyptian sandals.
The fake toes allowed one of the volunteers up to 87 percent of the flexion of the intact left toe when wearing the replicas with the sandals. But this volunteer’s ability to push off the ground was diminished without the sandals. Meanwhile, the second volunteer got between 60 and 63 percent flexion wearing the replicas with and without the sandals, according to a statement from the University of Manchester.
The false toes also did not cause any high-pressure points for the two volunteers, suggesting the prosthetics were relatively comfortable. But wearing the sandals without the artificial toes caused pressure under the foot to rise sharply, the researchers said.
"The pressure data tells us that it would have been very difficult for an ancient Egyptian missing a big toe to walk normally wearing traditional sandals," Finch said in a statement, adding that her research suggests these false toes made walking in a sandal more comfortable.
Finch’s work was summarized in February 2011 in the journal the Lancet, though at the time the actual data hadn’t been verified and so wasn’t released. The new publication, in the September issue of the Journal of Prosthetics and Orthotics, includes the data from the tests and gives a much more detailed analysis of the prosthetic toes.
The ancient Egyptians often restored artificial body parts to corpses, which means what might appear to be useful prosthetics actually were not. "The theology of Osiris, the god of the dead, stated that the body, in order to be effective during the afterlife, should be complete," Finch explained. "Osiris himself, according to myth, was cut up and his body parts scattered and later reunited."
Scientists have found a variety of artificial body parts restored on mummies, including feet, legs, noses, ears—and even penises. "You were still able to procreate in the afterlife," Finch told LiveScience.
"This series, "A Futuristic Look at Ancient Lenses: A Symposium on Ancient Egypt" focuses on topics and discussions from Ancient Egypt, and involved scholars from across the Eastern Illinois University Campus. In this video, Dr. Kip McGilliard discusses medicine in Ancient Egypt."
Philosophy and Practice of Medicine in Ancient Egypt
Muslim Rape Gang in Rhode Island 2015-10-10 2:47
2 Mohammeds, a Yazeed, & a Tareq accused of raping two 18 year old female Johnson & Wales students:
By Amanda Milkovits, Lynn Arditi, Providence Journal, Oct 7, 2015 (thanks to Andy Bostom)
PROVIDENCE, R.I. — Four male Johnson & Wales University students have been arrested in connection with a reported sexual assault and alleged drugging of two female students at the university.
South Carolina city to pay $6.5 million over police shooting of black man 2015-10-10 1:18
The family of an unarmed black man shot in the back by a white police officer will get a $6.5 million settlement from North Charleston in South Carolina, city officials said on Thursday.
The man, Walter Scott, 50, was shot after fleeing a traffic stop in April. The shooting was caught on a bystander's video and reignited a national outcry over ...
Finally, The CIA Admits Covering Up JFK Assassination 2015-10-09 23:56
Suspicions that the CIA covered up JFK’s murder have finally been confirmed, according to an explosive Politico report out this week. Fifty-two years after the President’s death, declassified documents show that the CIA were in communication with alleged assassin Lee Harvey Oswald before JFK’s murder in 1963, and they were monitoring his mail since 1959.
Not only that but John McCone, who was Chief of the ...
More Great Media Moments in Muslim Achievement: Headscarf Lady Wins Bakeoff In Britain 2015-10-09 23:18
Last month, America rejoiced when a 14-year-old Muslim lad in Irving, Texas discovered time, thus solving the universe’s ongoing problem that everything happens at once. This month, Britain is exulting that a Muslim lady can cook better than most Brits. From the New York Times:
Muslim Winner of Baking Contest Defies Prejudice in Britain
By Dan Bilefsky, OCT. 8, 2015
LONDON — Prime Minister ...
Israelis Declare Carrying Firearms Helpful in Preventing 'Lone Wolf' Attacks 2015-10-09 22:39
In the wake of several “lone wolf” attacks, the Israeli government is encouraging citizens to carry personal firearms with them at all times while in public. The attacks have been conducted by Palestinians wielding nothing more than knives, but have struck terror into the heart of Israel.
During the attacks, which are being conducted in reprisal for a long series of ...