The Writer Who Couldnít Read
2010-06-21 0:00

By Robert Krulwich NPR.org



On July 31, 2001, Engel woke up, dressed, made breakfast, and then went to the front door to get his newspaper. "I wasnít aware," he says in our NPR interview, "that it was any different from any other morning."

But it was. When he looked at the front page ó it was the Toronto Globe and Mail, an English-language journal ó the print on the page was unlike anything he had seen before. It looked vaguely "Serbo-Croatian or Korean," or some language he didnít know. Wondering if this was some kind of joke, he went to his bookshelf, pulled out a book he knew was in English, and it too was in the same gibberish.



Video from: YouTube.com

Engel had suffered a stroke. It had damaged the part of his brain we use when we read, so he couldnít make sense of letters or words. He was suffering from what the French neuroscientist Stanislas Dehaene calls "word blindness." His eyes worked. He could see shapes on a page, but they made no sense to him. And because Engel writes detective stories for a living (he authored the Benny Cooperman mystery series, tales of a mild-mannered Toronto private eye), this was an extra-terrible blow. "I thought, well Iím done as a writer. Iím finished."

In his letter to Oliver Sacks, Engel describes his stunning solution, or rather, his painfully executed semirecovery, which you can see in Levís video.

Briefly put, Engel discovered that if he traced the printed gibberish on a page with his hand, if he simulated the movements that a writer makes as he writes, he could gradually get back the meaning of the words.

Try writing "cat" 20 times, and then on the 21st try, write "cat" in the air with your finger. You know as you write in the air that the motions you make equal "cat." This is called "motor memory." This specific set of strokes triggers the idea of "cat" in your brain.

Engel couldnít see words with his eyes. His visual cortex was broken. But he could "see" when he used the motor part of his brain, first by tracing letters on a page, then by "writing" those same letters in the air, and then, strangely, when he shifted to copying letters with his tongue on the roof of his mouth. Tongue-copying was the fastest.

Over the years, says Sacks, Engel has learned to read with his tongue, flicking the shape of the letters on his front teeth. Engel has reached the point where he can almost keep up with the subtitles in a foreign film. He says he can get about half the words before they flash off.

Sacks describes Engelís struggles in a forthcoming book, The Mindís Eye, to be published later this year. The surprise here is that brains are more plastic than one would suppose; even if one part of a brain is compromised by a stroke, a person can sometimes improvise and get another still healthy part of the brain to substitute and help out.

Engel is writing again. He continues to write Benny Cooperman novels and in 2007 published a memoir, The Man Who Forgot How to Read.

"He has found a way to remain a man of letters," Sacks writes. "That he was able to do so is a testament to many things: the dedication and skill of his therapists in rehab, his own determination to read again, and the adaptability of the human brain."

You can hear Engel describe his problems in greater detail in our NPR broadcast. Just hit the "listen" button at the top of the page [link].

[Lev Yilmaz has created cartoons for [NPR] before. His last effort recounted an early attempt to discover how much heat a person, a dog and an egg can endure. The dog won.

Oliver Sacksí newest book, The Mindís Eye, will explore different kinds of blindness, including his own loss of sight in one eye.]


Article from: NPR.org

Image: Lev Yilmaz for NPR




Also tune into:

Marcel Kuijsten - Julian Jaynes, the Bicameral Mind & The Origin of Consciousness

Marcel Kuijsten - Entheogens, Dreams, the Unconscious & Neurology

Penney Peirce - Frequency, Intuition, Time & Dreams

Anthony Peake - Cheating The Ferryman & The Daemon

Neil Hague - The Rise of the True Human Being, Art & Unlocking the Imagination

Bruce Lipton - The Biology of Belief

Bruce Lipton - The Biology of Belief Continued

Lynne McTaggart - The Intention Experiment



Related Articles
Seeing Impostors: When Loved Ones Suddenly Arenít
Canít Remember Faces? Blame Your Genes
Hearing Things: When Sounds Come Unbidden
Howard Engel: íThe Man Who Forgot How To Readí (Audio)
Out of your head: Leaving the body behind
Magnetic field found to stimulate brain cells
Howard Engle
Masterstroke: Man who couldnít even draw stickmen wakes from brain surgery... as a talented artist
How it feels to have a stroke (Video)
Does Aspirin prevent Heart Attack and Strokes?


Latest News from our Front Page

Professor: Reason Itself Is A White Male Construct
2015-07-04 3:55
A philosophy and religion professor at Syracuse University gave an interview to The New York Times Thursday in which he critiqued the notion of pure reason as simply being a “white male Euro-Christian construction.” Prof. John Caputo was being interviewed by fellow philosophy professor George Yancy for the 13th installment of an interview series Yancy conducts with philosophers regarding racial topics. Given its emphasis on first principles ...
The Broken Window Fallacy
2015-07-04 3:48
Youtube description: This short video explains one of the most persistent economic fallacies of our day. Source: youtube.com
Jenji Kohan and the Jewish Hyper-Sexualization of Western Culture
2015-07-04 3:33
As detailed in The Culture of Critique, Freud and his followers regarded anti-Semitism was a universal pathology which had its roots in sexual repression. The theoretical basis for this can be found in Freud’s Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality where he linked aggression to the frustration of human drives — especially the sex drive. Kevin MacDonald notes that: ...
Confederate History - Dispelling the Myths
2015-07-03 3:28
History books, the media, the school systems, etc abound in falsehoods and inaccuracies of Confederate and Southern history. This fact sheet will help to clarify and dispell some of these rampant inaccuracies. MYTH - The War of 1861 - 1865 was fought over slavery. FACT - Terribly untrue. The North fought the war over money. Plain ...
Gays Rights May Open Door for Pedophile Rights
2015-07-03 3:31
Democrats have attempted to normalize pedophilia as a sexual orientation. A recent Supreme Court ruling on same-sex marriage may soon allow pedophiles to argue they are suffering discrimination. ‚ÄúUsing the same tactics used by ‚Äėgay‚Äô rights activists, pedophiles have begun to seek similar status arguing their desire for children is a sexual orientation no different than heterosexual or homosexuals,‚ÄĚ writes Jack Minor ...
More News »