The Writer Who Couldnít Read
2010-06-21 0:00

By Robert Krulwich NPR.org



On July 31, 2001, Engel woke up, dressed, made breakfast, and then went to the front door to get his newspaper. "I wasnít aware," he says in our NPR interview, "that it was any different from any other morning."

But it was. When he looked at the front page ó it was the Toronto Globe and Mail, an English-language journal ó the print on the page was unlike anything he had seen before. It looked vaguely "Serbo-Croatian or Korean," or some language he didnít know. Wondering if this was some kind of joke, he went to his bookshelf, pulled out a book he knew was in English, and it too was in the same gibberish.



Video from: YouTube.com

Engel had suffered a stroke. It had damaged the part of his brain we use when we read, so he couldnít make sense of letters or words. He was suffering from what the French neuroscientist Stanislas Dehaene calls "word blindness." His eyes worked. He could see shapes on a page, but they made no sense to him. And because Engel writes detective stories for a living (he authored the Benny Cooperman mystery series, tales of a mild-mannered Toronto private eye), this was an extra-terrible blow. "I thought, well Iím done as a writer. Iím finished."

In his letter to Oliver Sacks, Engel describes his stunning solution, or rather, his painfully executed semirecovery, which you can see in Levís video.

Briefly put, Engel discovered that if he traced the printed gibberish on a page with his hand, if he simulated the movements that a writer makes as he writes, he could gradually get back the meaning of the words.

Try writing "cat" 20 times, and then on the 21st try, write "cat" in the air with your finger. You know as you write in the air that the motions you make equal "cat." This is called "motor memory." This specific set of strokes triggers the idea of "cat" in your brain.

Engel couldnít see words with his eyes. His visual cortex was broken. But he could "see" when he used the motor part of his brain, first by tracing letters on a page, then by "writing" those same letters in the air, and then, strangely, when he shifted to copying letters with his tongue on the roof of his mouth. Tongue-copying was the fastest.

Over the years, says Sacks, Engel has learned to read with his tongue, flicking the shape of the letters on his front teeth. Engel has reached the point where he can almost keep up with the subtitles in a foreign film. He says he can get about half the words before they flash off.

Sacks describes Engelís struggles in a forthcoming book, The Mindís Eye, to be published later this year. The surprise here is that brains are more plastic than one would suppose; even if one part of a brain is compromised by a stroke, a person can sometimes improvise and get another still healthy part of the brain to substitute and help out.

Engel is writing again. He continues to write Benny Cooperman novels and in 2007 published a memoir, The Man Who Forgot How to Read.

"He has found a way to remain a man of letters," Sacks writes. "That he was able to do so is a testament to many things: the dedication and skill of his therapists in rehab, his own determination to read again, and the adaptability of the human brain."

You can hear Engel describe his problems in greater detail in our NPR broadcast. Just hit the "listen" button at the top of the page [link].

[Lev Yilmaz has created cartoons for [NPR] before. His last effort recounted an early attempt to discover how much heat a person, a dog and an egg can endure. The dog won.

Oliver Sacksí newest book, The Mindís Eye, will explore different kinds of blindness, including his own loss of sight in one eye.]


Article from: NPR.org

Image: Lev Yilmaz for NPR




Also tune into:

Marcel Kuijsten - Julian Jaynes, the Bicameral Mind & The Origin of Consciousness

Marcel Kuijsten - Entheogens, Dreams, the Unconscious & Neurology

Penney Peirce - Frequency, Intuition, Time & Dreams

Anthony Peake - Cheating The Ferryman & The Daemon

Neil Hague - The Rise of the True Human Being, Art & Unlocking the Imagination

Bruce Lipton - The Biology of Belief

Bruce Lipton - The Biology of Belief Continued

Lynne McTaggart - The Intention Experiment



Related Articles
Seeing Impostors: When Loved Ones Suddenly Arenít
Canít Remember Faces? Blame Your Genes
Hearing Things: When Sounds Come Unbidden
Howard Engel: íThe Man Who Forgot How To Readí (Audio)
Out of your head: Leaving the body behind
Magnetic field found to stimulate brain cells
Howard Engle
Masterstroke: Man who couldnít even draw stickmen wakes from brain surgery... as a talented artist
How it feels to have a stroke (Video)
Does Aspirin prevent Heart Attack and Strokes?


Latest News from our Front Page

ISIS, Feminists and Thugs: Dupes of the Foundations & Think Tanks
2015-05-05 0:55
Men have been manipulated for millennia by the governing class through the technique of fear through internal and external threats.  While it is true that in tribal societies the external (and sometimes internal) threat was very real, the extent of the plebian mind remained in the dialectic of ‚Äúwe good, they bad.‚ÄĚ  Today man is no different, but what is different is that the halls ...
A Lesson for New York Cops: How to Subdue Brawlers Without Hurting Them
2015-05-04 23:07
Every day in America police assault, injury and kill people who do not pose a threat to them. ‚ÄúThe increase in police brutality in the U.S. is a frightening reality. In the last decade alone the number of people murdered by police has reached 5,000. While the number of soldiers killed since the inception of the Iraq war is 4,489,‚ÄĚ The ...
Israel Is Preparing For Alien Invasion - Are The 'Tall White' Aliens Coming?
2015-05-04 21:00
Earlier in the week, the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) conducted a training exercise for its Air Force cyber unit, the ‚ÄúOfek‚ÄĚ (Horizon). The training exercise was based on a scenario in which the world is under attack by alien invaders, and IDF tech forces are faced with the challenge of sabotaging the advanced technological systems of attacking alien spacecraft. Although Lt. ...
800-year-old rune stick unearthed during excavation of Danish city
2015-05-04 21:53
The little stick found underneath the streets of Odense, Denmark’s third largest city, is only 8.5 centimetres in length -- but it isn’t just any old stick. The so-called rune stick was made in the early 13th century, said Odense City Museums in a press release. Archaeologists have been digging for a long time at the excavation beneath I. Vilhelm Werners ...
Immigrants to U.S. From China Top Those From Mexico
2015-05-04 21:10
Move over, Mexico. When it comes to sending immigrants to the U.S., China and India have taken the lead. China was the country of origin for 147,000 recent U.S. immigrants in 2013, while Mexico sent just 125,000, according to a Census Bureau study by researcher Eric Jensen and others. India, with 129,000 immigrants, also topped Mexico, though the two countries’ results ...
More News »